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E2FSCK(8)                                                            E2FSCK(8)

       e2fsck - check a Linux ext2/ext3 file system

       e2fsck  [  -pacnyrdfkvtDFV ] [ -b superblock ] [ -B blocksize ] [ -l|-L
       bad_blocks_file  ]  [  -C  fd  ]  [  -j   external-journal   ]   [   -E
       extended_options ] device

       e2fsck  is  used to check a Linux second extended file system (ext2fs).
       E2fsck also supports ext2 filesystems containing a journal,  which  are
       also sometimes known as ext3 filesystems, by first applying the journal
       to the filesystem before  continuing  with  normal  e2fsck  processing.
       After  the  journal  has  been  applied,  a filesystem will normally be
       marked as clean.  Hence, for ext3 filesystems, e2fsck will normally run
       the  journal  and  exit,  unless  its superblock indicates that further
       checking is required.

       device is  the  device  file  where  the  filesystem  is  stored  (e.g.

       Note  that  in general it is not safe to run e2fsck on mounted filesys-
       tems.  The only exception is if the -n option is specified, and -c, -l,
       or  -L  options  are not specified.   However, even if it is safe to do
       so, the results printed by e2fsck are not valid if  the  filesystem  is
       mounted.    If e2fsck asks whether or not you should check a filesystem
       which is mounted, the only correct answer is ``no''.  Only experts  who
       really know what they are doing should consider answering this question
       in any other way.

       -a     This option does the same thing as the -p option.   It  is  pro-
              vided  for  backwards  compatibility  only; it is suggested that
              people use -p option whenever possible.

       -b superblock
              Instead of using  the  normal  superblock,  use  an  alternative
              superblock  specified  by  superblock.   This option is normally
              used when the primary superblock has been corrupted.  The  loca-
              tion  of  the backup superblock is dependent on the filesystem's
              blocksize.   For  filesystems  with  1k  blocksizes,  a   backup
              superblock  can  be found at block 8193; for filesystems with 2k
              blocksizes, at block 16384; and  for  4k  blocksizes,  at  block

              Additional  backup  superblocks  can  be determined by using the
              mke2fs program using the  -n  option  to  print  out  where  the
              superblocks were created.   The -b option to mke2fs, which spec-
              ifies blocksize of the filesystem must be specified in order for
              the superblock locations that are printed out to be accurate.

              If  an alternative superblock is specified and the filesystem is
              not opened read-only, e2fsck will make  sure  that  the  primary
              superblock  is  updated  appropriately  upon  completion  of the
              filesystem check.

       -B blocksize
              Normally, e2fsck will search for the superblock at various  dif-
              ferent  block  sizes in an attempt to find the appropriate block
              size.  This search can be fooled in  some  cases.   This  option
              forces  e2fsck to only try locating the superblock at a particu-
              lar blocksize.  If the superblock  is  not  found,  e2fsck  will
              terminate with a fatal error.

       -c     This  option  causes  e2fsck to use badblocks(8) program to do a
              read-only scan of the device in order to find  any  bad  blocks.
              If  any  bad  blocks  are found, they are added to the bad block
              inode to prevent them from being allocated to a file  or  direc-
              tory.   If  this  option  is specified twice, then the bad block
              scan will be done using a non-destructive read-write test.

       -C fd  This option causes e2fsck to write completion information to the
              specified file descriptor so that the progress of the filesystem
              check can be monitored.  This option is typically used  by  pro-
              grams  which  are running e2fsck.  If the file descriptor number
              is negative, then absolute value of the file descriptor will  be
              used, and the progress information will be suppressed initially.
              It can later be enabled by sending the e2fsck process a  SIGUSR1
              signal.   If  the  file  descriptor  specified is 0, e2fsck will
              print a completion bar as it  goes  about  its  business.   This
              requires  that e2fsck is running on a video console or terminal.

       -d     Print  debugging  output  (useless  unless  you  are   debugging

       -D     Optimize  directories  in filesystem.  This option causes e2fsck
              to try to optimize all directories, either by reindexing them if
              the  filesystem  supports directory indexing,  or by sorting and
              compressing directories for smaller directories, or for filesys-
              tems using traditional linear directories.

              Even  without the -D option, e2fsck may sometimes optimize a few
              directories --- for example, if directory  indexing  is  enabled
              and  a  directory  is  not  indexed and would benefit from being
              indexed, or if the index structures are corrupted and need to be
              rebuilt.  The -D option forces all directories in the filesystem
              to be optimized.  This can sometimes make them a little  smaller
              and  slightly  faster  to  search,  but  in practice, you should
              rarely need to use this option.

              The -D option will detect directory entries with duplicate names
              in  a  single  directory, which e2fsck normally does not enforce
              for performance reasons.

       -E extended_options
              Set e2fsck extended options.  Extended options are  comma  sepa-
              rated,  and  may  take  an argument using the equals ('=') sign.
              The following options are supported:

                          Set the version of  the  extended  attribute  blocks
                          which   e2fsck   will  require  while  checking  the
                          filesystem.  The version number may be 1 or 2.   The
                          default extended attribute version format is 2.

                          During  pass  1, print a detailed report of any dis-
                          contiguous blocks for files in the filesystem.

       -f     Force checking even if the file system seems clean.

       -F     Flush the filesystem device's buffer  caches  before  beginning.
              Only really useful for doing e2fsck time trials.

       -j external-journal
              Set  the pathname where the external-journal for this filesystem
              can be found.

       -k     When combined with the -c option, any existing bad blocks in the
              bad  blocks  list are preserved, and any new bad blocks found by
              running badblocks(8) will be added to the  existing  bad  blocks

       -l filename
              Add  the  block numbers listed in the file specified by filename
              to the list of bad blocks.  The format of this file is the  same
              as the one generated by the badblocks(8) program.  Note that the
              block numbers are based on  the  blocksize  of  the  filesystem.
              Hence,  badblocks(8) must be given the blocksize of the filesys-
              tem in order to obtain correct results.  As a result, it is much
              simpler  and safer to use the -c option to e2fsck, since it will
              assure that the correct parameters are passed to  the  badblocks

       -L filename
              Set  the  bad  blocks list to be the list of blocks specified by
              filename.  (This option is the same as the -l option, except the
              bad  blocks list is cleared before the blocks listed in the file
              are added to the bad blocks list.)

       -n     Open the filesystem read-only, and assume an answer of  `no'  to
              all  questions.   Allows  e2fsck  to  be used non-interactively.
              (Note: if the -c, -l, or -L options are specified in addition to
              the -n option, then the filesystem will be opened read-write, to
              permit the bad-blocks list to be  updated.   However,  no  other
              changes will be made to the filesystem.)  This option may not be
              specified at the same time as the -p or -y options.

       -p     Automatically repair ("preen") the  file  system.   This  option
              will  cause  e2fsck to automatically fix any filesystem problems
              that can be safely fixed without human intervention.  If  e2fsck
              discovers  a  problem which may require the system administrator
              to take  additional  corrective  action,  e2fsck  will  print  a
              description  of the problem and then exit with the value 4 logi-
              cally or'ed into the exit code.  (See the  EXIT  CODE  section.)
              This  option  is normally used by the system's boot scripts.  It
              may not be specified at the same time as the -n or -y options.

       -r     This option does nothing at all; it is provided only  for  back-
              wards compatibility.

       -t     Print  timing  statistics  for  e2fsck.   If this option is used
              twice, additional timing statistics are printed  on  a  pass  by
              pass basis.

       -v     Verbose mode.

       -V     Print version information and exit.

       -y     Assume  an answer of `yes' to all questions; allows e2fsck to be
              used non-interactively.  This option may not be specified at the
              same time as the -n or -p options.

       The  exit  code  returned  by e2fsck is the sum of the following condi-
            0    - No errors
            1    - File system errors corrected
            2    - File system errors corrected, system should
                   be rebooted
            4    - File system errors left uncorrected
            8    - Operational error
            16   - Usage or syntax error
            32   - E2fsck canceled by user request
            128  - Shared library error

       The following signals have the following effect when sent to e2fsck.

              This signal causes e2fsck to start displaying a  completion  bar
              or  emitting  progress  information.   (See discussion of the -C

              This signal causes e2fsck to stop displaying a completion bar or
              emitting progress information.

       Almost  any  piece of software will have bugs.  If you manage to find a
       filesystem which causes e2fsck to crash, or which e2fsck is  unable  to
       repair, please report it to the author.

       Please  include  as  much  information  as possible in your bug report.
       Ideally, include a complete transcript of the e2fsck run, so I can  see
       exactly  what  error  messages  are displayed.  (Make sure the messages
       printed by e2fsck are in English; if your system has been configured so
       that  e2fsck's  messages  have  been  translated into another language,
       please set the the LC_ALL environment variable to C so that  the  tran-
       script  of  e2fsck's  output  will  be  useful  to  me.)  If you have a
       writable filesystem where the transcript can be stored,  the  script(1)
       program is a handy way to save the output of e2fsck to a file.

       It  is  also  useful  to send the output of dumpe2fs(8).  If a specific
       inode or inodes seems to be giving  e2fsck  trouble,  try  running  the
       debugfs(8)  command  and send the output of the stat(1u) command run on
       the relevant inode(s).  If the inode is a directory, the  debugfs  dump
       command  will allow you to extract the contents of the directory inode,
       which can sent to me after being first run  through  uuencode(1).   The
       most useful data you can send to help reproduce the bug is a compressed
       raw image dump of the filesystem, generated using e2image(8).  See  the
       e2image(8) man page for more details.

       Always include the full version string which e2fsck displays when it is
       run, so I know which version you are running.

       This version of e2fsck was written by Theodore Ts'o <>.

       e2fsck.conf(5),  badblocks(8),  dumpe2fs(8),  debugfs(8),   e2image(8),
       mke2fs(8), tune2fs(8)

E2fsprogs version 1.41.3         October 2008                        E2FSCK(8)

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