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SMARTCTL(8)                       2008/03/10                       SMARTCTL(8)

NAME
       smartctl - Control and Monitor Utility for SMART Disks

SYNOPSIS
       smartctl [options] device

FULL PATH
       /usr/sbin/smartctl

PACKAGE VERSION
       smartmontools-5.38 released 2008/03/10 at 10:44:07 GMT

DESCRIPTION
       smartctl  controls the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technol-
       ogy (SMART) system built into many ATA-3 and later ATA, IDE and  SCSI-3
       hard  drives. The purpose of SMART is to monitor the reliability of the
       hard drive and predict drive failures, and to carry out different types
       of  drive  self-tests.   This  version  of  smartctl is compatible with
       ATA/ATAPI-7 and earlier standards (see REFERENCES below)

       smartctl is a command line utility designed to perform SMART tasks such
       as  printing the SMART self-test and error logs, enabling and disabling
       SMART automatic testing, and initiating device self-tests. Note: if the
       user issues a SMART command that is (apparently) not implemented by the
       device, smartctl will print a warning message  but  issue  the  command
       anyway  (see  the -T, --tolerance option below).  This should not cause
       problems: on most devices, unimplemented SMART  commands  issued  to  a
       drive are ignored and/or return an error.

       smartctl also provides support for polling TapeAlert messages from SCSI
       tape drives and changers.

       The user must specify the device to be controlled  or  interrogated  as
       the final argument to smartctl.  Device paths are as follows:

       LINUX:   Use   the   forms  "/dev/hd[a-t]"  for  IDE/ATA  devices,  and
                "/dev/sd[a-z]" for SCSI devices.  For  SCSI  Tape  Drives  and
                Changers  with  TapeAlert  support use the devices "/dev/nst*"
                and "/dev/sg*".  For SATA  disks  accessed  with  libata,  use
                "/dev/sd[a-z]"  and  append  "-d  ata". For disks behind 3ware
                controllers you may need "/dev/sd[a-z]" or "/dev/twe[0-9]"  or
                "/dev/twa[0-9]": see details below. For disks behind HighPoint
                RocketRAID controllers you may need "/dev/sd[a-z]".  More gen-
                eral paths (such as devfs ones) may also be specified.

       DARWIN:  Use  the  forms  /dev/disk[0-9]  or  equivalently disk[0-9] or
                equivalently /dev/rdisk[0-9].  Long forms are also  available:
                please  use '-h' to see some examples. Note that there is cur-
                rently no Darwin SCSI support.

       FREEBSD: Use  the  forms  "/dev/ad[0-9]+"  for  IDE/ATA   devices   and
                "/dev/da[0-9]+" for SCSI devices.

       NETBSD/OPENBSD:
                Use  the  form "/dev/wd[0-9]+c" for IDE/ATA devices.  For SCSI
                disk and tape devices, use the device  names  "/dev/sd[0-9]+c"
                and  "/dev/st[0-9]+c"  respectively.   Be  sure to specify the
                correct "whole disk" partition letter for your architecture.

       SOLARIS: Use the forms "/dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?" for IDE/ATA and  SCSI  disk
                devices, and "/dev/rmt/*" for SCSI tape devices.

       WINDOWS 9x/ME:
                Use  the  forms  "/dev/hd[a-d]"  for  standard IDE/ATA devices
                accessed via SMARTVSD.VXD, and "/dev/hd[e-h]"  for  additional
                devices  accessed via a patched SMARTVSE.VXD (see INSTALL file
                for details).  Use the  form  "/dev/scsi[0-9][0-f]"  for  SCSI
                devices via an aspi dll on ASPI adapter 0-9, ID 0-15. The pre-
                fix "/dev/" is optional.

       WINDOWS NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista:
                Use the forms "/dev/sd[a-z]" for  IDE/(S)ATA  and  SCSI  disks
                "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-25]"  (where  "a"  maps  to  "0").  These
                disks  can  also  be  referred  to  as  "/dev/pd[0-255]"   for
                "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-255]".  ATA disks can also be referred to
                as "/dev/hd[a-z]" for "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-25]".  Use one  the
                forms       "/dev/tape[0-255]",      "/dev/st[0-255]",      or
                "/dev/nst[0-255]" for SCSI tape drives "\\.\Tape[0-255]".

                Alternatively, drive letters "X:" or  "X:\"  may  be  used  to
                specify the physical drive behind a mounted partition.

                For  disks  behind 3ware 9000 controllers use "/dev/sd[a-z],N"
                where N specifies the disk number (3ware  'port')  behind  the
                controller  providing  the logical drive ('unit') specified by
                "/dev/sd[a-z]".  Alternatively,  use  "/dev/tw_cli/cx/py"  for
                controller  x,  port  y to run the 'tw_cli' tool and parse the
                output. This provides limited  monitoring  ('-i',  '-c',  '-A'
                below)  if  SMART  support  is  missing  in  the  driver.  Use
                "/dev/tw_cli/stdin" or "/dev/tw_cli/clip" to parse CLI or  3DM
                output  from  standard  input  or  clipboard.   The option '-d
                3ware,N' is not necessary on Windows.  The prefix  "/dev/"  is
                optional.

       CYGWIN:  See "WINDOWS NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista" above.

       OS/2,eComStation:
                Use the form "/dev/hd[a-z]" for IDE/ATA devices.

       if  '-'  is specified as the device path, smartctl reads and interprets
       it's own debug output from standard input.  See '-r ataioctl' below for
       details.

       Based  on  the device path, smartctl will guess the device type (ATA or
       SCSI).  If necessary, the '-d' option can be  used  to  over-ride  this
       guess

       Note that the printed output of smartctl displays most numerical values
       in base 10 (decimal), but some values are displayed in  base  16  (hex-
       adecimal).   To  distinguish  them,  the base 16 values are always dis-
       played with a leading "0x", for example: "0xff". This man page  follows
       the same convention.

OPTIONS
       The  options  are grouped below into several categories.  smartctl will
       execute  the  corresponding  commands  in   the   order:   INFORMATION,
       ENABLE/DISABLE, DISPLAY DATA, RUN/ABORT TESTS.

       SCSI devices only accept the options -h, -V, -i, -a, -A, -d, -s, -S,-H,
       -t, -C, -l background, -l error, -l selftest, -r,  and  -X.   TapeAlert
       devices  only accept the options -h, -V, -i, -a, -A, -d, -s, -S, -t, -l
       error, -l selftest, -r, and -H.

       Long options  are  not  supported  on  all   systems.    Use  'smartctl
       -h' to see the available options.

       SHOW INFORMATION OPTIONS:

       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints a usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -V, --version, --copyright, --license
              Prints  version, copyright, license, home page and CVS-id infor-
              mation for your copy of  smartctl  to  STDOUT  and  then  exits.
              Please  include  this  information  if you are reporting bugs or
              problems.

       -i, --info
              Prints the device model number, serial number, firmware version,
              and  ATA  Standard  version/revision  information.   Says if the
              device supports SMART, and if so, whether SMART support is  cur-
              rently  enabled  or  disabled.   If  the device supports Logical
              Block Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive  capacity
              in bytes. (If drive is has a user protected area reserved, or is
              "clipped", this may be smaller than the potential maximum  drive
              capacity.)   Indicates  if  the  drive  is  in the smartmontools
              database (see '-v' options below).  If so, the drive model  fam-
              ily  may  also be printed. If '-n' (see below) is specified, the
              power mode of the drive is printed.

       -a, --all
              Prints all SMART information about the disk, or TapeAlert infor-
              mation about the tape drive or changer.  For ATA devices this is
              equivalent to
              '-H -i -c -A -l error -l selftest -l selective'
              and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
              '-H -i -A -l error -l selftest'.
              Note that for ATA disks this does not enable the '-l  directory'
              option.

       RUN-TIME BEHAVIOR OPTIONS:

       -q TYPE, --quietmode=TYPE
              Specifies that smartctl should run in one of the two quiet modes
              described here.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              errorsonly - only print: For the '-l error' option, if  nonzero,
              the  number  of  errors  recorded in the SMART error log and the
              power-on time when they occurred; For the '-l selftest'  option,
              errors  recorded  in  the  device  self-test  log;  For the '-H'
              option,  SMART  "disk  failing"  status  or  device   Attributes
              (pre-failure  or  usage) which failed either now or in the past;
              For the '-A' option, device Attributes  (pre-failure  or  usage)
              which failed either now or in the past.

              silent  - print no output.  The only way to learn about what was
              found is to use the exit status of smartctl (see  RETURN  VALUES
              below).

              noserial - Do not print the serial number of the device.

       -d TYPE, --device=TYPE
              Specifies  the  type of the device.  The valid arguments to this
              option are  ata,  scsi,  sat,  marvell,  3ware,N,  and  hpt,L/M,
              cciss,N  or hpt,L/M/N.  If this option is not used then smartctl
              will attempt to guess the device type from the device name.

              The 'sat' device type is for ATA disks that have a SCSI  to  ATA
              Translation  (SAT) Layer (SATL) between the disk and the operat-
              ing system.  SAT defines two ATA PASS THROUGH SCSI commands, one
              12  bytes  long  and  the other 16 bytes long that smartctl will
              utilize when this device type is selected. The default is the 16
              byte  variant which can be overridden with either '-d sat,12' or
              '-d sat,16'.

              Under Linux, to look at SATA  disks  behind  Marvell  SATA  con-
              trollers  (using  Marvell's 'linuxIAL' driver rather than libata
              driver) use '-d marvell'. Such controllers show  up  as  Marvell
              Technology  Group  Ltd. SATA I or II controllers using lspci, or
              using lspci -n show a vendor ID 0x11ab and a device ID of either
              0x5040, 0x5041, 0x5080, 0x5081, 0x6041 or 0x6081. The 'linuxIAL'
              driver seems not (yet?) available in  the  Linux  kernel  source
              tree,    but   should   be   available   from   system   vendors
              (ftp://ftp.aslab.com/ is known  to  provide  a  patch  with  the
              driver).

              Under  Linux and FreeBSD, to look at ATA disks behind 3ware SCSI
              RAID controllers, use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
              where in the argument 3ware,N, the integer N is the disk  number
              (3ware  'port')  within  the  3ware  ATA  RAID  controller.  The
              allowed values of N are from 0 to 31 inclusive.  The  first  two
              forms,  which  refer to devices /dev/sda-z and /dev/twe0-15, may
              be used with 3ware series  6000,  7000,  and  8000  series  con-
              trollers  that use the 3x-xxxx driver.  Note that the /dev/sda-z
              form is deprecated starting with the Linux 2.6 kernel series and
              may not be supported by the Linux kernel in the near future. The
              final form, which refers to devices /dev/twa0-15, must  be  used
              with  3ware  9000  series  controllers,  which  use  the 3w-9xxx
              driver.

              Note that if the special character device  nodes  /dev/twa?  and
              /dev/twe?  do  not  exist,  or exist with the incorrect major or
              minor numbers, smartctl will recreate them on  the  fly.   Typi-
              cally  /dev/twa0  refers  to  the  first 9000-series controller,
              /dev/twa1 refers to the second 9000 series  controller,  and  so
              on.  Likewise /dev/twe0 refers to the first 6/7/8000-series con-
              troller, /dev/twa1 refers to the  second  6/7/8000  series  con-
              troller, and so on.

              Note  that  for  the  6/7/8000  controllers, any of the physical
              disks can be queried or examined using any of the  3ware's  SCSI
              logical  device  /dev/sd?   entries.   Thus,  if  logical device
              /dev/sda is made up of two physical disks (3ware ports zero  and
              one)  and logical device /dev/sdb is made up of two other physi-
              cal disks (3ware ports two and three) then you can  examine  the
              SMART  data  on any of the four physical disks using either SCSI
              device /dev/sda or /dev/sdb.  If you need to know which  logical
              SCSI  device  a particular physical disk (3ware port) is associ-
              ated with, use the dmesg or SYSLOG output to show which SCSI  ID
              corresponds  to  a particular 3ware unit, and then use the 3ware
              CLI or 3dm tool to determine which ports (physical disks) corre-
              spond to particular 3ware units.

              If  the  value of N corresponds to a port that does not exist on
              the 3ware controller, or to a port that does not physically have
              a disk attached to it, the behavior of smartctl depends upon the
              specific controller model, firmware, Linux kernel and  platform.
              In  some  cases  you  will get a warning message that the device
              does not exist. In other cases you will be presented with 'void'
              data for a non-existent device.

              Note  that  if  the /dev/sd? addressing form is used, then older
              3w-xxxx drivers do not pass the "Enable Autosave" ('-S on')  and
              "Enable  Automatic  Offline" ('-o on') commands to the disk, and
              produce these types of harmless syslog error  messages  instead:
              "3w-xxxx:  tw_ioctl(): Passthru size (123392) too big". This can
              be fixed by upgrading to version 1.02.00.037  or  later  of  the
              3w-xxxx  driver,  or  by applying a patch to older versions. See
              http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/ for instructions.   Alter-
              natively, use the character device /dev/twe0-15 interface.

              The  selective  self-test  functions  ('-t select,A-B') are only
              supported using the character device interface /dev/twa0-15  and
              /dev/twe0-15.   The  necessary  WRITE  LOG  commands  can not be
              passed through the SCSI interface.

              3ware controllers are supported under Linux,  FreeBSD  and  Win-
              dows.

              To look at (S)ATA disks behind HighPoint RocketRAID controllers,
              use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda
              or
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/sda
              where in the argument hpt,L/M or hpt,L/M/N, the integer L is the
              controller  id,  the  integer  M  is the channel number, and the
              integer N is the PMPort number if it is available.  The  allowed
              values  of L are from 1 to 4 inclusive, M are from 1 to 8 inclu-
              sive and N from 1 to 4  if  PMPort  available.   Note  that  the
              /dev/sda-z  form  should be the device node which stands for the
              disks derived from the HighPoint  RocketRAID  controllers.   And
              also  these  values  are  limited  by the model of the HighPoint
              RocketRAID controller.

              HighPoint RocketRAID controllers are  currently  ONLY  supported
              under Linux.

              cciss controllers are currently ONLY supported under Linux.

       -T TYPE, --tolerance=TYPE
              Specifies  how tolerant smartctl should be of ATA and SMART com-
              mand failures.

              The behavior of smartctl depends upon  whether  the  command  is
              "optional"  or  "mandatory". Here "mandatory" means "required by
              the ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification if the device implements the SMART
              command   set"   and  "optional"  means  "not  required  by  the
              ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification even  if  the  device  implements  the
              SMART command set."  The "mandatory" ATA and SMART commands are:
              (1) ATA IDENTIFY  DEVICE,  (2)  SMART  ENABLE/DISABLE  ATTRIBUTE
              AUTOSAVE, (3) SMART ENABLE/DISABLE, and (4) SMART RETURN STATUS.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              normal - exit on failure of any  mandatory  SMART  command,  and
              ignore  all  failures  of  optional SMART commands.  This is the
              default.  Note  that  on  some  devices,  issuing  unimplemented
              optional SMART commands doesn't cause an error.  This can result
              in misleading smartctl messages such as "Feature  X  not  imple-
              mented", followed shortly by "Feature X: enabled".  In most such
              cases, contrary to the final message, Feature X is not  enabled.

              conservative - exit on failure of any optional SMART command.

              permissive  -  ignore  failure(s)  of  mandatory SMART commands.
              This option may be given more than once.  Each additional use of
              this  option  will  cause  one  more  additional  failure  to be
              ignored.  Note that the use of this option can lead to  messages
              like  "Feature  X  not implemented", followed shortly by "Error:
              unable to enable Feature X".  In a few such cases,  contrary  to
              the final message, Feature X is enabled.

              verypermissive - equivalent to giving a large number of '-T per-
              missive' options: ignore failures of  any  number  of  mandatory
              SMART commands.  Please see the note above.

       -b TYPE, --badsum=TYPE
              Specifies the action smartctl should take if a checksum error is
              detected in  the:  (1)  Device  Identity  Structure,  (2)  SMART
              Self-Test  Log  Structure,  (3) SMART Attribute Value Structure,
              (4) SMART Attribute Threshold Structure, or (5)  ATA  Error  Log
              Structure.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              warn  -  report  the incorrect checksum but carry on in spite of
              it.  This is the default.

              exit - exit smartctl.

              ignore - continue silently without issuing a warning.

       -r TYPE, --report=TYPE
              Intended primarily to help smartmontools  developers  understand
              the  behavior  of smartmontools on non-conforming or poorly con-
              forming hardware.   This  option  reports  details  of  smartctl
              transactions  with  the device.  The option can be used multiple
              times.  When used just once, it shows a record  of  the  ioctl()
              transactions  with  the  device.   When used more than once, the
              detail of these ioctl() transactions  are  reported  in  greater
              detail.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

              ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

              scsiioctl  - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI devices.
              Invoking this once shows the SCSI commands in hex and the corre-
              sponding status. Invoking it a second time adds a hex listing of
              the first 64 bytes of data send to, or received from the device.

              Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
              of detail that should be reported.  The argument should be  fol-
              lowed  by a comma then the integer with no spaces.  For example,
              ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so '-r  ataioctl,1'  and  '-r
              ataioctl' are equivalent.

              For testing purposes, the output of '-r ataioctl,2' can later be
              parsed by smartctl itself if '-' is used as  device  path  argu-
              ment.   The ATA command input parameters, sector data and return
              values are reconstructed from the debug report read from  stdin.
              Then  smartctl  internally simulates an ATA device with the same
              behaviour. This is does not work for SCSI devices yet.

       -n POWERMODE, --nocheck=POWERMODE
              Specifieds if smartctl should exit before performing any  checks
              when  the  device  is  in  a  low-power  mode. It may be used to
              prevent a disk from being spun-up by smartctl. The power mode is
              ignored by default. The allowed values of POWERMODE are:

              never  -  check  the  device always, but print the power mode if
              '-i' is specified.

              sleep - check the device unless it is in SLEEP mode.

              standby - check the device unless it  is  in  SLEEP  or  STANDBY
              mode.   In  these  modes  most disks are not spinning, so if you
              want to prevent a disk from spinning up, this is  probably  what
              you want.

              idle  -  check the device unless it is in SLEEP, STANDBY or IDLE
              mode.  In the IDLE state, most disks are still spinning, so this
              is probably not what you want.

       SMART FEATURE ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS:

              Note:  if multiple options are used to both enable and disable a
              feature, then both the  enable  and  disable  commands  will  be
              issued.   The  enable  command  will always be issued before the
              corresponding disable command.

       -s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
              Enables or disables SMART on device.   The  valid  arguments  to
              this option are on and off.  Note that the command '-s on' (per-
              haps used with with the '-o on' and '-S on' options)  should  be
              placed  in  a  start-up  script for your machine, for example in
              rc.local or rc.sysinit.  In principle the SMART feature settings
              are  preserved  over  power-cycling,  but  it doesn't hurt to be
              sure. It is not necessary (or useful) to enable SMART to see the
              TapeAlert messages.

       -o VALUE, --offlineauto=VALUE
              Enables  or  disables  SMART automatic offline test, which scans
              the drive every four hours for disk defects. This command can be
              given  during  normal  system operation.  The valid arguments to
              this option are on and off.

              Note that the SMART automatic offline test command is listed  as
              "Obsolete"  in every version of the ATA and ATA/ATAPI Specifica-
              tions.  It was originally part of  the  SFF-8035i  Revision  2.0
              specification,  but  was  never  part  of any ATA specification.
              However it is implemented and used by many vendors. [Good  docu-
              mentation can be found in IBM's Official Published Disk Specifi-
              cations.  For example the IBM Travelstar 40GNX Hard  Disk  Drive
              Specifications (Revision 1.1, 22 April 2002, Publication # 1541,
              Document S07N-7715-02) page 164. You can also read the SFF-8035i
              Specification  --  see REFERENCES below.]  You can tell if auto-
              matic offline testing is supported by  seeing  if  this  command
              enables  and disables it, as indicated by the 'Auto Offline Data
              Collection' part of the  SMART  capabilities  report  (displayed
              with '-c').

              SMART  provides  three  basic  categories of testing.  The first
              category, called "online" testing, has no effect on the  perfor-
              mance of the device.  It is turned on by the '-s on' option.

              The second category of testing is called "offline" testing. This
              type of test can, in principle, degrade the device  performance.
              The  '-o  on'  option  causes this offline testing to be carried
              out, automatically, on a regular scheduled basis.  Normally, the
              disk will suspend offline testing while disk accesses are taking
              place, and then automatically resume it when the disk would oth-
              erwise  be idle, so in practice it has little effect.  Note that
              a one-time offline test can also be carried out immediately upon
              receipt  of  a user command.  See the '-t offline' option below,
              which causes a one-time offline test to be carried  out  immedi-
              ately.

              The choice (made by the SFF-8035i and ATA specification authors)
              of the word testing for these first two categories  is  unfortu-
              nate,  and  often  leads  to confusion.  In fact these first two
              categories of online and offline testing could  have  been  more
              accurately described as online and offline data collection.

              The results of this automatic or immediate offline testing (data
              collection) are reflected in the values of the SMART Attributes.
              Thus,  if  problems  or errors are detected, the values of these
              Attributes will go below their failure thresholds; some types of
              errors may also appear in the SMART error log. These are visible
              with the '-A' and '-l error' options respectively.

              Some SMART attribute values are  updated  only  during  off-line
              data  collection  activities; the rest are updated during normal
              operation of the device or  during  both  normal  operation  and
              off-line  testing.   The  Attribute  value table produced by the
              '-A' option indicates this in the UPDATED column.  Attributes of
              the  first type are labeled "Offline" and Attributes of the sec-
              ond type are labeled "Always".

              The third category of testing (and the only category  for  which
              the  word  'testing'  is really an appropriate choice) is "self"
              testing.  This third type of test  is  only  performed  (immedi-
              ately)  when  a  command to run it is issued.  The '-t' and '-X'
              options can be used to carry  out  and  abort  such  self-tests;
              please see below for further details.

              Any  errors  detected  in  the self testing will be shown in the
              SMART self-test log, which can be examined using the  '-l  self-
              test' option.

              Note: in this manual page, the word "Test" is used in connection
              with the second category just described, e.g. for the  "offline"
              testing.   The words "Self-test" are used in connection with the
              third category.

       -S VALUE, --saveauto=VALUE
              Enables or disables SMART  autosave  of  device  vendor-specific
              Attributes.  The  valid arguments to this option are on and off.
              Note that this feature is preserved across disk power cycles, so
              you should only need to issue it once.

              For  SCSI  devices  this toggles the value of the Global Logging
              Target Save Disabled (GLTSD) bit in the Control Mode Page.  Some
              disk  manufacturers set this bit by default. This prevents error
              counters, power-up hours and other useful data from being placed
              in  non-volatile  storage,  so these values may be reset to zero
              the next time the device is power-cycled.  If the GLTSD  bit  is
              set then 'smartctl -a' will issue a warning. Use on to clear the
              GLTSD bit and thus enable saving counters to non-volatile  stor-
              age.  For  extreme  streaming-video  type applications you might
              consider using off to set the GLTSD bit.

       SMART READ AND DISPLAY DATA OPTIONS:

       -H, --health
              Check: Ask the device to report its SMART health status or pend-
              ing  TapeAlert  messages.   SMART status is based on information
              that it has gathered from online and offline tests,  which  were
              used  to  determine/update  its  SMART vendor-specific Attribute
              values. TapeAlert status is obtained by  reading  the  TapeAlert
              log page.

              If  the  device reports failing health status, this means either
              that the device has already failed, or that it is predicting its
              own  failure within the next 24 hours.  If this happens, use the
              '-a' option to get more information, and get your data  off  the
              disk and to someplace safe as soon as you can.

       -c, --capabilities
              Prints  only  the  generic  SMART capabilities.  These show what
              SMART features are implemented and how the device  will  respond
              to  some  of the different SMART commands.  For example it shows
              if the device logs errors, if it supports offline surface  scan-
              ning,  and  so on.  If the device can carry out self-tests, this
              option also shows the  estimated  time  required  to  run  those
              tests.

              Note  that  the  time  required to run the Self-tests (listed in
              minutes) are fixed.  However the time required to run the  Imme-
              diate  Offline Test (listed in seconds) is variable.  This means
              that if you issue a command to perform an Immediate Offline test
              with the '-t offline' option, then the time may jump to a larger
              value and then count down as the Immediate Offline Test is  car-
              ried  out.   Please see REFERENCES below for further information
              about the the flags and capabilities described by this option.

       -A, --attributes
              Prints  only  the  vendor  specific   SMART   Attributes.    The
              Attributes  are  numbered  from 1 to 253 and have specific names
              and ID numbers. For example Attribute 12 is "power cycle count":
              how many times has the disk been powered up.

              Each  Attribute  has  a  "Raw"  value, printed under the heading
              "RAW_VALUE", and a "Normalized" value printed under the  heading
              "VALUE".   [Note:  smartctl prints these values in base-10.]  In
              the example just given, the "Raw Value" for Attribute  12  would
              be   the   actual  number  of  times  that  the  disk  has  been
              power-cycled, for example 365 if the disk  has  been  turned  on
              once  per  day for exactly one year.  Each vendor uses their own
              algorithm to convert this "Raw" value to a "Normalized" value in
              the range from 1 to 254.  Please keep in mind that smartctl only
              reports the different Attribute types, values, and thresholds as
              read  from  the  device.   It  does not carry out the conversion
              between "Raw" and "Normalized"  values:  this  is  done  by  the
              disk's firmware.

              The  conversion from Raw value to a quantity with physical units
              is not specified by the SMART standard. In most cases, the  val-
              ues  printed by smartctl are sensible.  For example the tempera-
              ture Attribute generally has its raw value equal to the tempera-
              ture in Celsius.  However in some cases vendors use unusual con-
              ventions.  For example the Hitachi disk on my laptop reports its
              power-on hours in minutes, not hours. Some IBM disks track three
              temperatures rather than one, in their raw values.  And so on.

              Each Attribute also has a Threshold value (whose range is  0  to
              255)  which  is printed under the heading "THRESH".  If the Nor-
              malized value is less than or equal to the Threshold value, then
              the  Attribute  is  said  to have failed.  If the Attribute is a
              pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.

              Each Attribute also has a "Worst" value shown under the  heading
              "WORST".   This  is the smallest (closest to failure) value that
              the disk has recorded at any time during its lifetime when SMART
              was enabled.  [Note however that some vendors firmware may actu-
              ally  increase  the   "Worst"   value   for   some   "rate-type"
              Attributes.]

              The  Attribute  table  printed  out  by  smartctl also shows the
              "TYPE" of the Attribute. Attributes  are  one  of  two  possible
              types:  Pre-failure or Old age.  Pre-failure Attributes are ones
              which, if less than or equal to their threshold values, indicate
              pending  disk  failure.   Old age, or usage Attributes, are ones
              which indicate end-of-product life from old-age or normal  aging
              and wearout, if the Attribute value is less than or equal to the
              threshold.  Please note: the fact that an Attribute is  of  type
              'Pre-fail'  does  not  mean that your disk is about to fail!  It
              only has this meaning  if  the  Attribute's  current  Normalized
              value is less than or equal to the threshold value.

              If  the  Attribute's  current  Normalized  value is less than or
              equal to the threshold value, then the "WHEN_FAILED" column will
              display  "FAILING_NOW".  If not, but the worst recorded value is
              less than or equal to the threshold value, then this column will
              display "In_the_past".  If the "WHEN_FAILED" column has no entry
              (indicated by a dash: '-') then this Attribute is  OK  now  (not
              failing) and has also never failed in the past.

              The  table column labeled "UPDATED" shows if the SMART Attribute
              values are updated during both  normal  operation  and  off-line
              testing, or only during offline testing.  The former are labeled
              "Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".

              So to summarize: the Raw Attribute  values  are  the  ones  that
              might  have a real physical interpretation, such as "Temperature
              Celsius", "Hours", or "Start-Stop  Cycles".   Each  manufacturer
              converts  these,  using  their  detailed knowledge of the disk's
              operations and failure modes, to Normalized Attribute values  in
              the  range  1-254.   The  current and worst (lowest measured) of
              these Normalized Attribute values are stored on the disk,  along
              with a Threshold value that the manufacturer has determined will
              indicate that the disk is going to fail, or that it has exceeded
              its  design age or aging limit.  smartctl does not calculate any
              of the Attribute values, thresholds, or types, it merely reports
              them from the SMART data on the device.

              Note  that starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4, the meaning of
              these Attribute fields has been made  entirely  vendor-specific.
              However most ATA/ATAPI-5 disks seem to respect their meaning, so
              we have retained the option of printing the Attribute values.

              For SCSI devices the "attributes" are obtained from the tempera-
              ture and start-stop cycle counter log pages. Certain vendor spe-
              cific attributes are listed if recognised.  The  attributes  are
              output  in  a  relatively  free  format  (compared with ATA disk
              attributes).

       -l TYPE, --log=TYPE
              Prints either the SMART Error Log, the SMART Self-Test Log,  the
              SMART Selective Self-Test Log [ATA only], the Log Directory [ATA
              only], or the Background Scan  Results  Log  [SCSI  only].   The
              valid arguments to this option are:

              error - prints only the SMART error log.  SMART disks maintain a
              log of the most recent five  non-trivial  errors.  For  each  of
              these  errors,  the  disk  power-on  lifetime at which the error
              occurred is recorded, as is the device  status  (idle,  standby,
              etc) at the time of the error.  For some common types of errors,
              the Error Register (ER) and  Status  Register  (SR)  values  are
              decoded and printed as text. The meanings of these are:
                 ABRT:  Command ABoRTed
                 AMNF:  Address Mark Not Found
                 CCTO:  Command Completion Timed Out
                 EOM:   End Of Media
                 ICRC:  Interface Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) error
                 IDNF:  IDentity Not Found
                 ILI:   (packet command-set specific)
                 MC:    Media Changed
                 MCR:   Media Change Request
                 NM:    No Media
                 obs:   obsolete
                 TK0NF: TracK 0 Not Found
                 UNC:   UNCorrectable Error in Data
                 WP:    Media is Write Protected
              In  addition,  up  to  the  last five commands that preceded the
              error are listed, along with a timestamp measured from the start
              of  the corresponding power cycle. This is displayed in the form
              Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec where D is the number of days, HH is hours,  MM
              is minutes, SS is seconds and msec is milliseconds.  [Note: this
              time stamp wraps after 2^32 milliseconds, or 49 days 17 hours  2
              minutes  and  47.296  seconds.]   The key ATA disk registers are
              also recorded in the log.  The final column of the error log  is
              a text-string description of the ATA command defined by the Com-
              mand Register (CR) and Feature Register (FR)  values.   Commands
              that  are  obsolete  in the most current (ATA-7) spec are listed
              like this: READ LONG (w/ retry)  [OBS-4],  indicating  that  the
              command  became  obsolete  with  or  in the ATA-4 specification.
              Similarly, the notation [RET-N] is used to indicate that a  com-
              mand  was retired in the ATA-N specification.  Some commands are
              not defined in any version of the ATA specification but  are  in
              common use nonetheless; these are marked [NS], meaning non-stan-
              dard.

              The ATA Specification (ATA-5 Revision  1c,  Section  8.41.6.8.2)
              says:  "Error  log  structures  shall  include  UNC errors, IDNF
              errors for which the address requested was valid, servo  errors,
              write  fault  errors,  etc.  Error log data structures shall not
              include errors attributed to the receipt of faulty commands such
              as  command codes not implemented by the device or requests with
              invalid parameters or invalid  addresses."  The  definitions  of
              these terms are:
              UNC (UNCorrectable): data is uncorrectable.  This refers to data
              which has been read from the  disk,  but  for  which  the  Error
              Checking  and  Correction  (ECC)  codes  are  inconsistent.   In
              effect, this means that the data can not be read.
              IDNF (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be found.
              For READ LOG type commands, IDNF can also indicate that a device
              data log structure checksum was incorrect.

              If the command that caused the error was a READ  or  WRITE  com-
              mand,  then  the  Logical Block Address (LBA) at which the error
              occurred will be printed in base 10 and base 16.  The LBA  is  a
              linear  address,  which  counts  512-byte  sectors  on the disk,
              starting from zero.  (Because of the limitations  of  the  SMART
              error  log, if the LBA is greater than 0xfffffff, then either no
              error log entry will be made, or the error log entry  will  have
              an  incorrect  LBA.  This  may happen for drives with a capacity
              greater than 128 GiB or 137 GB.) On Linux systems the  smartmon-
              tools  web  page  has  instructions about how to convert the LBA
              address to the name of the disk file  containing  the  erroneous
              disk sector.

              Please  note  that  some manufacturers ignore the ATA specifica-
              tions, and make entries in the error log if the device  receives
              a command which is not implemented or is not valid.

              error  [SCSI]  -  prints  the error counter log pages for reads,
              write and verifies.  The verify row is only output if it has  an
              element other than zero.

              selftest - prints the SMART self-test log.  The disk maintains a
              self-test log showing the results of the self tests,  which  can
              be  run  using the '-t' option described below.  For each of the
              most recent twenty-one self-tests, the log  shows  the  type  of
              test (short or extended, off-line or captive) and the final sta-
              tus of the test.  If the test  did  not  complete  successfully,
              then the percentage of the test remaining is shown.  The time at
              which the test took place, measured in hours of  disk  lifetime,
              is also printed.  If any errors were detected, the Logical Block
              Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in decimal notation.
              On  Linux  systems  the  smartmontools web page has instructions
              about how to convert this LBA address to the name  of  the  disk
              file containing the erroneous block.

              selftest  [SCSI]  -  the  self-test  log for a SCSI device has a
              slightly different format than for an ATA device.  For  each  of
              the most recent twenty self-tests, it shows the type of test and
              the status (final or in progress) of the  test.  SCSI  standards
              use  the  terms "foreground" and "background" (rather than ATA's
              corresponding "captive" and "off-line") and "short"  and  "long"
              (rather  than  ATA's  corresponding  "short"  and "extended") to
              describe the type of the test.  The printed  segment  number  is
              only  relevant when a test fails in the third or later test seg-
              ment.  It identifies the test that failed and consists of either
              the  number  of  the segment that failed during the test, or the
              number of the test that failed and the number of the segment  in
              which  the  test  was  run,  using  a  vendor-specific method of
              putting both numbers into a  single  byte.   The  Logical  Block
              Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in hexadecimal nota-
              tion.  On Linux systems the smartmontools web page has  instruc-
              tions  about  how to convert this LBA address to the name of the
              disk file containing the erroneous block.  If provided, the SCSI
              Sense Key (SK), Additional Sense Code (ASC) and Additional Sense
              Code Qualifier (ASQ) are also printed. The self tests can be run
              using the '-t' option described below (using the ATA test termi-
              nology).

              selective [ATA] - Some ATA-7 disks (example: Maxtor) also  main-
              tain  a  selective  self-test  log.   Please see the '-t select'
              option below for a description  of  selective  self-tests.   The
              selective  self-test  log  shows  the  start/end  Logical  Block
              Addresses (LBA) of each of the five test spans, and  their  cur-
              rent  test status.  If the span is being tested or the remainder
              of the disk is  being  read-scanned,  the  current  65536-sector
              block  of  LBAs  being  tested is also displayed.  The selective
              self-test log also shows if a read-scan of the remainder of  the
              disk  will be carried out after the selective self-test has com-
              pleted (see '-t afterselect' option) and the time  delay  before
              restarting this read-scan if it is interrupted (see '-t pending'
              option). This is a  new  smartmontools  feature;  please  report
              unusual or incorrect behavior to the smartmontools-support mail-
              ing list.

              directory - if the device supports the General  Purpose  Logging
              feature  set  (ATA-6  and  ATA-7  only) then this prints the Log
              Directory (the log at address 0).  The Log Directory shows  what
              logs are available and their length in sectors (512 bytes).  The
              contents of the logs at address 1 [Summary SMART error log]  and
              at address 6 [SMART self-test log] may be printed using the pre-
              viously-described error and selftest arguments to  this  option.
              [Please  note:  this  is  a new, experimental feature.  We would
              like to add support for printing the contents  of  extended  and
              comprehensive SMART self-test and error logs.  If your disk sup-
              ports these, and you would like to assist,  please  contact  the
              smartmontools developers.]

              background  [SCSI]  -  the  background  scan results log outputs
              information derived from Background Media Scans (BMS) done after
              power  up  and/or  periodocally (e.g.  every 24 hours) on recent
              SCSI disks. If supported, the BMS status is output first,  indi-
              cating  whether  a background scan is currently underway (and if
              so a progress percentage), the amount of time the disk has  been
              powered up and the number of scans already completed. Then there
              is a header and a line for each background scan  "event".  These
              will typically be either recovered or unrecoverable errors. That
              latter group may need some attention. There is a description  of
              the  background scan mechansim in section 4.18 of SBC-3 revision
              6 (see www.t10.org ).

              scttemp,  scttempsts,  scttemphist  [ATA]  -  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL
              SMARTCTL  FEATURE]  prints the disk temperature information pro-
              vided by the SMART Command Transport (SCT) commands.  The option
              'scttempsts'  prints  current temperature and temperature ranges
              returned by the SCT Status command, 'scttemphist' prints temper-
              ature  limits  and the temperature history table returned by the
              SCT Data Table command, and 'scttemp' prints both.  The tempera-
              ture values are preserved across power cycles.  The default tem-
              perature logging interval is 1 minute and can be configured with
              the  '-t  scttempint,N[,p]' option, see below.  The SCT commands
              are specified in the proposed ATA-8 Command Set (ACS),  and  are
              already implemented in some recent ATA-7 disks.

       -v N,OPTION, --vendorattribute=N,OPTION
              Sets  a  vendor-specific  display  OPTION for Attribute N.  This
              option may be used  multiple  times.  Valid  arguments  to  this
              option are:

              help  - Prints (to STDOUT) a list of all valid arguments to this
              option, then exits.

              9,minutes - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in  minutes.
              Its  raw value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X is
              hours, and Y is minutes in  the  range  0-59  inclusive.   Y  is
              always  printed  with  two  digits,  for example "06" or "31" or
              "00".

              9,seconds - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in  seconds.
              Its  raw value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym+Zs".  Here X
              is hours, Y is minutes in the range 0-59  inclusive,  and  Z  is
              seconds in the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y and Z are always printed
              with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".

              9,halfminutes - Raw Attribute number 9 is  power-on  time,  mea-
              sured  in units of 30 seconds.  This format is used by some Sam-
              sung disks.  Its  raw  value  will  be  displayed  in  the  form
              "Xh+Ym".   Here  X  is hours, and Y is minutes in the range 0-59
              inclusive.  Y is always printed with  two  digits,  for  example
              "06" or "31" or "00".

              9,temp  - Raw Attribute number 9 is the disk temperature in Cel-
              sius.

              192,emergencyretractcyclect - Raw Attribute number  192  is  the
              Emergency Retract Cycle Count.

              193,loadunload  -  Raw Attribute number 193 contains two values.
              The first is the number of load cycles.  The second is the  num-
              ber  of  unload cycles.  The difference between these two values
              is the number of times that the drive was  unexpectedly  powered
              off  (also  called an emergency unload). As a rule of thumb, the
              mechanical stress created by one emergency unload is  equivalent
              to that created by one hundred normal unloads.

              194,10xCelsius  - Raw Attribute number 194 is ten times the disk
              temperature in Celsius.  This is  used  by  some  Samsung  disks
              (example: model SV1204H with RK100-13 firmware).

              194,unknown  - Raw Attribute number 194 is NOT the disk tempera-
              ture, and its interpretation is unknown. This is primarily  use-
              ful for the -P (presets) option.

              198,offlinescanuncsectorct  -  Raw  Attribute  number 198 is the
              Offline Scan UNC Sector Count.

              200,writeerrorcount - Raw Attribute  number  200  is  the  Write
              Error Count.

              201,detectedtacount  -  Raw Attribute number 201 is the Detected
              TA Count.

              220,temp - Raw Attribute number 220 is the disk  temperature  in
              Celsius.

              Note: a table of hard drive models, listing which Attribute cor-
              responds    to     temperature,     can     be     found     at:
              http://www.guzu.net/linux/hddtemp.db

              N,raw8  -  Print  the  Raw  value  of  Attribute  N as six 8-bit
              unsigned base-10 integers.  This may be useful for decoding  the
              meaning  of  the Raw value.  The form 'N,raw8' prints Raw values
              for ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for  example)
              '123,raw8'  only  prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in this
              form.

              N,raw16 - Print the Raw value of Attribute  N  as  three  16-bit
              unsigned  base-10 integers.  This may be useful for decoding the
              meaning of the Raw value.  The form 'N,raw16' prints Raw  values
              for  ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for example)
              '123,raw16' only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in  this
              form.

              N,raw48  -  Print  the  Raw  value  of  Attribute  N as a 48-bit
              unsigned base-10 integer.  This may be useful for  decoding  the
              meaning  of the Raw value.  The form 'N,raw48' prints Raw values
              for ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for  example)
              '123,raw48'  only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in this
              form.

       -F TYPE, --firmwarebug=TYPE
              Modifies the behavior of smartctl to compensate for  some  known
              and  understood device firmware or driver bug.  Except 'swapid',
              the arguments to this option are exclusive,  so  that  only  the
              final option given is used.  The valid values are:

              none  - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA specifica-
              tions.  This is the default, unless the device has  presets  for
              '-F' in the device database (see note below).

              samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware
              Version: RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities  in
              the  SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the ATA
              specification).  Enabling this option tells smartctl to evaluate
              these  quantities  in byte-reversed order.  Some signs that your
              disk needs this option are (1) no self-test  log  printed,  even
              though  you  have  run self-tests; (2) very large numbers of ATA
              errors reported in the ATA error log; (3) strange and impossible
              values for the ATA error log timestamps.

              samsung2  -  In  more  recent  Samsung disks (firmware revisions
              ending in "-23") the number  of  ATA  errors  reported  is  byte
              swapped.   Enabling  this option tells smartctl to evaluate this
              quantity in byte-reversed order. An indication that your Samsung
              disk needs this option is that the self-test log is printed cor-
              rectly, but there are a very large number of errors in the SMART
              error  log.   This  is  because the error count is byte swapped.
              Thus a disk with five errors (0x0005) will appear to have  20480
              errors (0x5000).

              samsung3  -  Some  Samsung disks (at least SP2514N with Firmware
              VF100-37) report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining
              when  the test was already completed. Enabling this option modi-
              fies the output of the self-test execution status  (see  options
              '-c' or '-a' above) accordingly.

              Note  that  an  explicit  '-F'  option  on the command line will
              over-ride any preset  values  for  '-F'  (see  the  '-P'  option
              below).

              swapid  -  Fixes byte swapped ATA identify strings (device name,
              serial number, firmware version) returned by some  buggy  device
              drivers.

       -P TYPE, --presets=TYPE
              Specifies  whether  smartctl  should use any preset options that
              are available for this drive. By default, if the drive is recog-
              nized  in the smartmontools database, then the presets are used.

              smartctl can automatically set  appropriate  options  for  known
              drives.   For  example,  the  Maxtor 4D080H4 uses Attribute 9 to
              stores power-on time in minutes whereas  most  drives  use  that
              Attribute to store the power-on time in hours.  The command-line
              option '-v 9,minutes' ensures that smartctl correctly interprets
              Attribute 9 in this case, but that option is preset for the Max-
              tor 4D080H4 and so need not be specified  by  the  user  on  the
              smartctl command line.

              The  argument  show  will show any preset options for your drive
              and the argument showall will  show  all  known  drives  in  the
              smartmontools  database,  along  with  their preset options.  If
              there are no presets for your drive and you think  there  should
              be  (for example, a -v or -F option is needed to get smartctl to
              display correct values) then please  contact  the  smartmontools
              developers  so  that this information can be added to the smart-
              montools database.  Contact information is at the  end  of  this
              man page.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              use  - if a drive is recognized, then use the stored presets for
              it.  This is the default. Note that presets will  NOT  over-ride
              additional  Attribute  interpretation  ('-v  N,something')  com-
              mand-line options or explicit '-F' command-line options..

              ignore - do not use presets.

              show - show if the drive is recognized in the database,  and  if
              so, its presets, then exit.

              showall  -  list all recognized drives, and the presets that are
              set for them, then exit.

              The '-P showall' option takes up to two  optional  arguments  to
              match a specific drive type and firmware version. The command:
                smartctl -P showall
              lists all entries, the command:
                smartctl -P showall 'MODEL'
              lists all entries matching MODEL, and the command:
                smartctl -P showall 'MODEL' 'FIRMWARE'
              lists  all  entries  for this MODEL and a specific FIRMWARE ver-
              sion.

       SMART RUN/ABORT OFFLINE TEST AND SELF-TEST OPTIONS:

       -t TEST, --test=TEST
              Executes TEST immediately.  The '-C' option can be used in  con-
              junction with this option to run the short or long (and also for
              ATA devices, selective or conveyance) self-tests in captive mode
              (known  as  "foreground mode" for SCSI devices).  Note that only
              one test type can be run at a time, so only one test type should
              be  specified per command line.  Note also that if a computer is
              shutdown or power cycled during  a  self-test,  no  harm  should
              result.   The  self-test  will  either be aborted or will resume
              automatically.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              offline - runs SMART Immediate Offline Test.   This  immediately
              starts the test described above.  This command can be given dur-
              ing normal system operation.  The effects of this test are visi-
              ble  only  in that it updates the SMART Attribute values, and if
              errors are found they will appear in the SMART error log,  visi-
              ble  with  the  '-l  error' option. [In the case of SCSI devices
              runs the default self test in foreground. No entry is placed  in
              the self test log.]

              If  the  '-c'  option  to smartctl shows that the device has the
              "Suspend Offline collection upon new  command"  capability  then
              you  can  track the progress of the Immediate Offline test using
              the '-c' option to smartctl.  If the '-c' option show  that  the
              device has the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capa-
              bility then most commands will abort the Immediate Offline Test,
              so  you  should  not  try to track the progress of the test with
              '-c', as it will abort the test.

              short - runs SMART Short Self Test (usually under ten  minutes).
              [Note: in the case of SCSI devices, this command option runs the
              "Background short" self-test.]  This command can be given during
              normal  system  operation  (unless run in captive mode - see the
              '-C' option below).  This is a test in a different category than
              the  immediate  or  automatic  offline  tests.  The "Self" tests
              check the electrical and mechanical performance as well  as  the
              read performance of the disk.  Their results are reported in the
              Self Test Error Log, readable with  the  '-l  selftest'  option.
              Note  that  on  some  disks the progress of the self-test can be
              monitored by watching this log during the self-test; with  other
              disks use the '-c' option to monitor progress.

              long  - runs SMART Extended Self Test (tens of minutes).  [Note:
              in the case of SCSI devices, this command option runs the "Back-
              ground  long"  self-test.]   This  is a longer and more thorough
              version of the Short Self Test described above.  Note that  this
              command  can be given during normal system operation (unless run
              in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).

              conveyance - [ATA ONLY] runs a SMART Conveyance Self Test  (min-
              utes).   This  self-test  routine is intended to identify damage
              incurred during transporting of the device. This self-test  rou-
              tine should take on the order of minutes to complete.  Note that
              this command can be given during normal system operation (unless
              run in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).

              select,N-M,  select,N+SIZE  -  [ATA ONLY] [EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL
              FEATURE] runs a SMART Selective Self Test, to test  a  range  of
              disk  Logical  Block  Addresses  (LBAs),  rather than the entire
              disk.  Each range of LBAs that is checked is called a "span" and
              is  specified by a starting LBA (N) and an ending LBA (M) with N
              less than or equal to M. The range  can  also  be  specified  as
              N+SIZE. A span at the end of a disk can be specified by N-max.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10+11 /dev/hda
              both  runs  a  self  test  on one span consisting of LBAs ten to
              twenty (inclusive). The command:
                smartctl -t select,100000000-max /dev/hda
              run a self test from LBA 100000000 up to the end  of  the  disk.
              The  '-t'  option  can  be given up to five times, to test up to
              five spans.  For example the command:
                smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/hda
              runs a self test on two spans.  The first span consists  of  101
              LBAs  and  the second span consists of 1001 LBAs.  Note that the
              spans can overlap partially or completely, for example:
                smartctl -t select,0-10 -t select,5-15 -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
              The results of the selective self-test  can  be  obtained  (both
              during  and after the test) by printing the SMART self-test log,
              using the '-l selftest' option to smartctl.

              Selective self tests are particularly useful as disk  capacities
              increase: an extended self test (smartctl -t long) can take sev-
              eral hours.  Selective self-tests are helpful if (based on  SYS-
              LOG  error  messages, previous failed self-tests, or SMART error
              log entries) you suspect that a disk is  having  problems  at  a
              particular range of Logical Block Addresses (LBAs).

              Selective  self-tests  can be run during normal system operation
              (unless done in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).

              [Note: To use this feature on Linux, the kernel must be compiled
              with  the  configuration  option CONFIG_IDE_TASKFILE_IO enabled.
              Please report unusual or incorrect  behavior  to  the  smartmon-
              tools-support mailing list.]

              The  following  variants  of the selective self-test command use
              spans based on the ranges from past tests already stored on  the
              disk:

              select,redo[+SIZE]  - [ATA ONLY] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEA-
              TURE] redo the last SMART Selective Self Test using the same LBA
              range.  The  starting  LBA  is identical to the LBA used by last
              test, same for ending LBA unless a new span size is specified by
              optional +SIZE argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,redo /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,redo+20 /dev/hda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,10-29 /dev/hda

              select,next[+SIZE]  - [ATA ONLY] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEA-
              TURE] runs a SMART Selective Self Test on the  LBA  range  which
              follows  the  range of the last test. The starting LBA is set to
              (ending LBA +1) of the last test. A new span size may be  speci-
              fied by the optional +SIZE argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,next /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,next+2000 /dev/hda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,1000-1999 /dev/hda
                smartctl -t select,2000-3999 /dev/hda

              If  the  last  test  ended  at the last LBA of the disk, the new
              range starts at LBA 0. The span size of the last span of a  disk
              is  adjusted  such  that  the total number of spans to check the
              full  disk  will  not  be  changed  by  future   uses   of   '-t
              select,next'.

              select,cont[+SIZE]  - [ATA ONLY] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEA-
              TURE] performs a 'redo' (above) if the self test status  reports
              that the last test was aborted by the host. Otherwise it run the
              'next' (above) test.

              afterselect,on - [ATA ONLY] perform an offline read scan after a
              Selective  Self-test  has  completed.  This  option must be used
              together with one or more of the select,N-M  options  above.  If
              the  LBAs  that  have  been specified in the Selective self-test
              pass the test with no errors found, then read scan the remainder
              of  the  disk.   If the device is powered-cycled while this read
              scan is in progress, the read scan will be automatically resumed
              after  a  time  specified by the pending timer (see below).  The
              value of this option is preserved between selective  self-tests.

              afterselect,off  -  [ATA ONLY] do not read scan the remainder of
              the disk after a Selective self-test has completed.  This option
              must  be use together with one or more of the select,N-M options
              above.  The value of this option is preserved between  selective
              self-tests.

              pending,N  -  [ATA ONLY] set the pending offline read scan timer
              to N minutes.  Here N is an integer in the range from 0 to 65535
              inclusive.   If  the  device  is  powered off during a read scan
              after a Selective self-test, then resume the test  automatically
              N minutes after power-up.  This option must be use together with
              one or more of the select,N-M options above. The value  of  this
              option is preserved between selective self-tests.

              scttempint,N[,p]  -  [ATA  ONLY] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEA-
              TURE] set the time interval for SCT  temperature  logging  to  N
              minutes.  If  ',p' is specified, the setting is preserved across
              power cycles. Otherwise, the setting is  volatile  and  will  be
              reverted  to default (1 minute), or last non-volatile setting by
              the next hard reset. This command also  clears  the  temperature
              history table. See '-l scttemp' above for more information about
              SCT temperature logging.

       -C, --captive
              Runs self-tests in captive mode.  This has no  effect  with  '-t
              offline'  or  if the '-t' option is not used. [Note: in the case
              of SCSI devices, this  command  option  runs  the  self-test  in
              "Foreground" mode.]

              WARNING:  Tests  run  in captive mode may busy out the drive for
              the length of the test.  Only run captive tests on drives  with-
              out any mounted partitions!

       -X, --abort
              Aborts  non-captive  SMART  Self  Tests.  Note that this command
              will abort the Offline Immediate Test routine only if your  disk
              has  the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capability.

EXAMPLES
       smartctl -a /dev/hda
       Print all SMART information for drive /dev/hda (Primary Master).

       smartctl -s off /dev/hdd
       Disable SMART on drive /dev/hdd (Secondary Slave).

       smartctl --smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/hda
       Enable SMART on drive /dev/hda, enable automatic offline testing  every
       four  hours, and enable autosaving of SMART Attributes.  This is a good
       start-up line for your system's init files.  You can issue this command
       on a running system.

       smartctl -t long /dev/hdc
       Begin an extended self-test of drive /dev/hdc.  You can issue this com-
       mand on a running system.  The results can be seen in the self-test log
       visible with the '-l selftest' option after it has completed.

       smartctl -s on -t offline /dev/hda
       Enable  SMART on the disk, and begin an immediate offline test of drive
       /dev/hda.  You can issue this command on a running system.  The results
       are  only  used  to  update the SMART Attributes, visible with the '-A'
       option.  If any device errors occur, they are logged to the SMART error
       log, which can be seen with the '-l error' option.

       smartctl -A -v 9,minutes /dev/hda
       Shows  the  vendor  Attributes,  when the disk stores its power-on time
       internally in minutes rather than hours.

       smartctl -q errorsonly -H -l selftest /dev/hda
       Produces output only if the device returns failing SMART status, or  if
       some of the logged self-tests ended with errors.

       smartctl -q silent -a /dev/hda
       Examine all SMART data for device /dev/hda, but produce no printed out-
       put.  You must use the exit status (the $?  shell variable) to learn if
       any  Attributes  are  out  of bound, if the SMART status is failing, if
       there are errors recorded in the self-test log, or if there are  errors
       recorded in the disk error log.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/sda
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       6000/7000/8000 controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twa0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       9000 controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d 3ware,3 /dev/sdb
       Start a short self-test on the fourth ATA disk connected to  the  3ware
       RAID controller card which is the second SCSI device /dev/sdb.

       smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda
       Examine  all  SMART  data for the (S)ATA disk directly connected to the
       third channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/sda
       Start a short self-test on the (S)ATA disk connected to  second  pmport
       on the first channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on -t pending,45 /dev/hda
       Run a selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300.   After  the
       these  LBAs  have been tested, read-scan the remainder of the disk.  If
       the disk is power-cycled during the read-scan, resume the scan 45  min-
       utes after power to the device is restored.

       smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0
       Examine  all  SMART  data  for the first SCSI disk connected to a cciss
       RAID controller card.

RETURN VALUES
       The return values of smartctl are defined by a bitmask.  If all is well
       with  the  disk,  the  return value (exit status) of smartctl is 0 (all
       bits turned off).  If a problem occurs, or an error,  potential  error,
       or  fault  is  detected,  then  a non-zero status is returned.  In this
       case, the eight different bits in the return value have  the  following
       meanings  for  ATA disks; some of these values may also be returned for
       SCSI disks.

       Bit 0: Command line did not parse.

       Bit 1: Device open failed, or device did not return an IDENTIFY  DEVICE
              structure.

       Bit 2: Some  SMART  command to the disk failed, or there was a checksum
              error in a SMART data structure (see '-b' option above).

       Bit 3: SMART status check returned "DISK FAILING".

       Bit 4: We found prefail Attributes <= threshold.

       Bit 5: SMART status check returned "DISK OK" but  we  found  that  some
              (usage  or  prefail)  Attributes  have been <= threshold at some
              time in the past.

       Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.

       Bit 7: The device self-test log contains records of errors.

              To test within the shell for whether or not the  different  bits
              are  turned  on  or  off, you can use the following type of con-
              struction (this is bash syntax):
              smartstat=$(($? & 8))
              This looks at only at bit  3  of  the  exit  status  $?   (since
              8=2^3).   The shell variable $smartstat will be nonzero if SMART
              status check returned "disk failing" and zero otherwise.

NOTES
       The TapeAlert log page flags are cleared for  the  initiator  when  the
       page  is  read.  This  means that each alert condition is reported only
       once by smartctl for each initiator for each activation of  the  condi-
       tion.

AUTHOR
       Bruce Allen smartmontools-support@lists.sourceforge.net
       University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department

CONTRIBUTORS
       The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
       Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI interface)
       Christian Franke (Windows interface and Cygwin package)
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
       Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
       Geoffrey Keating (Darwin ATA interface)
       Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
       Frederic L. W. Meunier (Web site and Mailing list)
       Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
       Sergey Svishchev (NetBSD interface)
       David Snyder and Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
       Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
       Yuri Dario (OS/2, eComStation interface)
       Shengfeng Zhou (Linux Highpoint RocketRaid interface)
       Many other individuals have made smaller contributions and corrections.

CREDITS
       This code was derived from the smartsuite package, written  by  Michael
       Cornwell,  and  from  the previous UCSC smartsuite package.  It extends
       these to cover ATA-5 disks.  This code was originally  developed  as  a
       Senior  Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems Laboratory
       (now part of the Storage Systems Research Center), Jack  Baskin  School
       of    Engineering,    University    of    California,    Santa    Cruz.
       http://ssrc.soe.ucsc.edu/ .

HOME PAGE FOR SMARTMONTOOLS:
       Please see the following web site for updates,  further  documentation,
       bug reports and patches: http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

SEE ALSO:
       smartd(8), badblocks(8), ide-smart(8).

REFERENCES FOR SMART
       An  introductory  article  about smartmontools is Monitoring Hard Disks
       with SMART, by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004,  pages  74-77.
       This is http://www.linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6983 online.

       If  you  would  like  to understand better how SMART works, and what it
       does, a good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the  first
       volume  of  the  'AT  Attachment with Packet Interface-7' (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification.  This documents the SMART functionality which the smart-
       montools utilities provide access to.  You can find Revision 4b of this
       document  at  http://www.t13.org/docs2004/d1532v1r4b-ATA-ATAPI-7.pdf  .
       Earlier and later versions of this Specification are available from the
       T13 web site http://www.t13.org/ .

       The functioning of SMART was originally defined by the SFF-8035i  revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications.  These are publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.  Links to these doc-
       uments may be found in the References section of the smartmontools home
       page at http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/ .

CVS ID OF THIS PAGE:
       $Id: smartctl.8.in,v 1.105 2008/03/04 22:09:47 ballen4705 Exp $

smartmontools-5.38                2008/03/10                       SMARTCTL(8)

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