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SMARTD(8)                         2008/03/10                         SMARTD(8)

NAME
       smartd - SMART Disk Monitoring Daemon

SYNOPSIS
       smartd [options]

FULL PATH
       /usr/sbin/smartd

PACKAGE VERSION
       smartmontools-5.38 released 2008/03/10 at 10:44:07 GMT

DESCRIPTION
       smartd  is  a  daemon  that  monitors the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and
       Reporting Technology (SMART) system built into  many  ATA-3  and  later
       ATA, IDE and SCSI-3 hard drives. The purpose of SMART is to monitor the
       reliability of the hard drive and predict drive failures, and to  carry
       out  different  types  of  drive self-tests.  This version of smartd is
       compatible with  ATA/ATAPI-7  and  earlier  standards  (see  REFERENCES
       below).

       smartd  will attempt to enable SMART monitoring on ATA devices (equiva-
       lent to smartctl -s on) and polls these and SCSI devices every 30  min-
       utes   (configurable),  logging  SMART  errors  and  changes  of  SMART
       Attributes via the SYSLOG interface.  The default  location  for  these
       SYSLOG notifications and warnings is /var/log/messages.  To change this
       default location, please see the  '-l'  command-line  option  described
       below.

       In addition to logging to a file, smartd can also be configured to send
       email warnings if problems are detected.  Depending upon  the  type  of
       problem,  you may want to run self-tests on the disk, back up the disk,
       replace the disk, or use a manufacturer's utility to force reallocation
       of  bad  or  unreadable  disk  sectors.  If disk problems are detected,
       please see the smartctl manual page and the smartmontools web  page/FAQ
       for further guidance.

       If  you send a USR1 signal to smartd it will immediately check the sta-
       tus of the disks, and then return to polling the disks  every  30  min-
       utes. See the '-i' option below for additional details.

       smartd  can  be  configured  at  start-up  using the configuration file
       /etc/smartd.conf (Windows: ./smartd.conf).  If the  configuration  file
       is  subsequently modified, smartd can be told to re-read the configura-
       tion file by sending it a HUP signal, for example with the command:
       killall -HUP smartd.
       (Windows: See NOTES below.)

       On startup, if smartd finds a syntax error in the  configuration  file,
       it  will  print  an  error  message and then exit. However if smartd is
       already running, then is told with a HUP signal to re-read the configu-
       ration  file,  and then find a syntax error in this file, it will print
       an error message and  then  continue,  ignoring  the  contents  of  the
       (faulty)  configuration  file,  as  if  the  HUP  signal had never been
       received.

       When smartd is running in debug mode, the INT signal  (normally  gener-
       ated  from  a shell with CONTROL-C) is treated in the same way as a HUP
       signal: it makes smartd reload its configuration file. To  exit  smartd
       use CONTROL-\ (Cygwin: 2x CONTROL-C, Windows: CONTROL-Break).

       On  startup, in the absence of the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf,
       the smartd daemon first scans for all devices that support SMART.   The
       scanning is done as follows:

       LINUX:   Examine  all  entries  "/dev/hd[a-t]" for IDE/ATA devices, and
                "/dev/sd[a-z]" for SCSI devices.

       FREEBSD: Examine all entries "/dev/ad[0-9]+" for  IDE/ATA  devices  and
                "/dev/da[0-9]+" for SCSI devices.

       NETBSD/OPENBSD:
                Authoritative  list  of  disk  devices is obtained from sysctl
                'hw.disknames'.

       SOLARIS: Examine all entries "/dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?" for IDE/ATA and  SCSI
                disk  devices, and entries "/dev/rmt/*" for SCSI tape devices.

       DARWIN:  The IOService plane is scanned for ATA block storage  devices.

       WINDOWS 9x/ME:
                Examine    all    entries    "/dev/hd[a-d]"    (bitmask   from
                "\\.\SMARTVSD") for  IDE/ATA  devices.   Examine  all  entries
                "/dev/scsi[0-9][0-f]" for SCSI devices on ASPI adapter 0-9, ID
                0-15.

       WINDOWS NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista:
                Examine all entries "/dev/sd[a-j]"  ("\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-9]")
                for IDE/(S)ATA and SCSI disk devices

                If  a  3ware 9000 controller is installed, examine all entries
                "/dev/sdX,N" for the first logical drive  ('unit'  "/dev/sdX")
                and  all  physical  disks  ('ports' ",N") detected behind this
                controller. Same for a second controller if present.

       CYGWIN:  See "WINDOWS NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista" above.

       OS/2,eComStation:
                Use the form "/dev/hd[a-z]" for IDE/ATA devices.

       smartd then monitors for all possible SMART  errors  (corresponding  to
       the  '-a'  Directive  in the configuration file; see CONFIGURATION FILE
       below).

OPTIONS
       Long options are not supported on all systems.  Use 'smartd -h' to  see
       the available options.

       -c FILE, --configfile=FILE

              Read  smartd configuration Directives from FILE, instead of from
              the default location /etc/smartd.conf (Windows:  ./smartd.conf).
              If  FILE does not exist, then smartd will print an error message
              and exit with nonzero status.  Thus, '-c  /etc/smartd.conf'  can
              be  used  to  verify  the existence of the default configuration
              file.

              By using '-' for FILE, the configuration is read  from  standard
              input. This is useful for commands like:
              echo /dev/hdb -m user@home -M test | smartd -c - -q onecheck
              to perform quick and simple checks without a configuration file.

       -d, --debug
              Runs smartd in "debug" mode. In this mode,  it  displays  status
              information  to STDOUT rather than logging it to SYSLOG and does
              not fork(2) into the background and detach from the  controlling
              terminal.   In this mode, smartd also prints more verbose infor-
              mation about what it is doing than when  operating  in  "daemon"
              mode.  In  this mode, the QUIT signal (normally generated from a
              terminal with CONTROL-C) makes smartd reload  its  configuration
              file.   Please use CONTROL-\ to exit (Cygwin: 2x CONTROL-C, Win-
              dows: CONTROL-Break).

              Windows only: The "debug" mode can be  toggled  by  the  command
              smartd  sigusr2.  A  new console for debug output is opened when
              debug mode is enabled.

       -D, --showdirectives
              Prints a list (to STDOUT) of all the possible  Directives  which
              may  appear in the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf, and then
              exits.  These Directives are also described later  in  this  man
              page.  They  may  appear in the configuration file following the
              device name.

       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -i N, --interval=N
              Sets the interval between disk checks to N seconds, where N is a
              decimal integer.  The minimum allowed value is ten and the maxi-
              mum is the largest positive integer that can be  represented  on
              your system (often 2^31-1).  The default is 1800 seconds.

              Note  that the superuser can make smartd check the status of the
              disks at any time by sending it the SIGUSR1 signal, for  example
              with the command:
              kill -SIGUSR1 <pid>
              where  <pid>  is  the process id number of smartd.  One may also
              use:
              killall -USR1 smartd
              for the same purpose.
              (Windows: See NOTES below.)

       -l FACILITY, --logfacility=FACILITY
              Uses syslog facility FACILITY to log the messages  from  smartd.
              Here  FACILITY  is one of local0, local1, ..., local7, or daemon
              [default].  If this command-line option is  not  used,  then  by
              default  messages from smartd are logged to the facility daemon.

              If you would like to have smartd messages logged somewhere other
              than  the default /var/log/messages location, this can typically
              be accomplished with (for example) the following steps:

              [1] Modify the script that starts smartd to include  the  smartd
                  command-line argument '-l local3'.  This tells smartd to log
                  its messages to facility local3.

              [2] Modify the syslogd configuration file  (typically  /etc/sys-
                  log.conf) by adding a line of the form:
                  local3.* /var/log/smartd.log
                  This  tells  syslogd  to  log all the messages from facility
                  local3 to the designated file: /var/log/smartd.log.

              [3] Tell syslogd to re-read its configuration file, typically by
                  sending the syslogd process a SIGHUP hang-up signal.

              [4] Start (or restart) the smartd daemon.

              For more detailed information, please refer to the man pages for
              syslog.conf, syslogd, and syslog.  You may also want  to  modify
              the  log  rotation  configuration  files;  see the man pages for
              logrotate and examine your system's /etc/logrotate.conf file.

              Cygwin: Support for syslogd  as  described  above  is  available
              starting  with  Cygwin 1.5.15.  On older releases or if no local
              syslogd is running, the '-l' option  has  no  effect.   In  this
              case, all syslog messages are written to Windows event log or to
              file C:/CYGWIN_SYSLOG.TXT if the event log is not available.

              Windows: Some syslog functionality is implemented internally  in
              smartd  as follows: If no '-l' option (or '-l daemon') is speci-
              fied, messages are written to  Windows  event  log  or  to  file
              ./smartd.log  if  event log is not available (Win9x/ME or access
              denied). By specifying other values of FACILITY, log  output  is
              redirected  as  follows:  '-l  local0' to file ./smartd.log, '-l
              local1' to standard output (redirect with '>' to any file),  '-l
              local2'   to   standard   error,   '-l   local[3-7]':   to  file
              ./smartd[1-5].log.

              When using the event log,  the  enclosed  utility  syslogevt.exe
              should  be  registered  as  an event message file to avoid error
              messages from the event viewer. Use  'syslogevt  -r  smartd'  to
              register,  'syslogevt  -u  smartd' to unregister and 'syslogevt'
              for more help.

       -n, --no-fork
              Do not fork into background; this is useful when  executed  from
              modern init methods like initng, minit or supervise.

              On  Cygwin, this allows running smartd as service via cygrunsrv,
              see NOTES below.

              On Windows,  this  option  is  not  available,  use  '--service'
              instead.

       -p NAME, --pidfile=NAME
              Writes  pidfile  NAME  containing  the  smartd Process ID number
              (PID).  To avoid symlink attacks  make  sure  the  directory  to
              which  pidfile  is  written  is only writable for root.  Without
              this option, or if the --debug option is given, no PID  file  is
              written  on startup.  If smartd is killed with a maskable signal
              then the pidfile is removed.

       -q WHEN, --quit=WHEN
              Specifies when, if ever, smartd should exit.   The  valid  argu-
              ments are to this option are:

              nodev  -  Exit  if  there  are  no devices to monitor, or if any
              errors are found at startup in the configuration file.  This  is
              the default.

              errors  -  Exit  if  there  are no devices to monitor, or if any
              errors are found in the configuration file  /etc/smartd.conf  at
              startup or whenever it is reloaded.

              nodevstartup  -  Exit  if  there  are  no  devices to monitor at
              startup.  But continue to run if no devices are  found  whenever
              the configuration file is reloaded.

              never  -  Only exit if a fatal error occurs (no remaining system
              memory, invalid command line arguments). In this mode,  even  if
              there  are  no  devices to monitor, or if the configuration file
              /etc/smartd.conf  has  errors,  smartd  will  continue  to  run,
              waiting to load a configuration file listing valid devices.

              onecheck  -  Start  smartd in debug mode, then register devices,
              then check device's SMART status once, and then exit  with  zero
              exit status if all of these steps worked correctly.

              This last option is intended for 'distribution-writers' who want
              to create automated scripts to determine whether or not to auto-
              matically start up smartd after installing smartmontools.  After
              starting smartd with this  command-line  option,  the  distribu-
              tion's  install  scripts should wait a reasonable length of time
              (say ten seconds).  If smartd has not exited with zero status by
              that  time,  the  script should send smartd a SIGTERM or SIGKILL
              and assume that smartd will not operate correctly on  the  host.
              Conversely, if smartd exits with zero status, then it is safe to
              run smartd in normal daemon mode. If smartd is unable to monitor
              any  devices  or  encounters  other problems then it will return
              with non-zero exit status.

              showtests - Start smartd in debug mode, then  register  devices,
              then  write a list of future scheduled self tests to stdout, and
              then exit with zero exit status if all  of  these  steps  worked
              correctly.  Device's SMART status is not checked.

              This  option  is  intended to test whether the '-s REGEX' direc-
              tives in smartd.conf will have the desired  effect.  The  output
              lists  the  next test schedules, limited to 5 tests per type and
              device. This is followed by a  summary  of  all  tests  of  each
              device within the next 90 days.

       -r TYPE, --report=TYPE
              Intended  primarily  to help smartmontools developers understand
              the behavior of smartmontools on non-conforming  or  poorly-con-
              forming  hardware.  This option reports details of smartd trans-
              actions with the device.  The option can be used multiple times.
              When  used  just once, it shows a record of the ioctl() transac-
              tions with the device.  When used more than once, the detail  of
              these  ioctl() transactions are reported in greater detail.  The
              valid arguments to this option are:

              ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

              ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

              scsiioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI  devices.

              Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
              of detail that should be reported.  The argument should be  fol-
              lowed  by a comma then the integer with no spaces.  For example,
              ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so '-r  ataioctl,1'  and  '-r
              ataioctl' are equivalent.

       --service
              Cygwin and Windows only: Enables smartd to run as a Windows ser-
              vice.

              On Cygwin, this option is kept for backward compatibility  only.
              It has the same effect as '-n, --no-fork', see above.

              On  Windows,  this  option  enables the buildin service support.
              The option must be specified in the service command line as  the
              first  argument.  It should not be used from console.  See NOTES
              below for details.

       -V, --version, --license, --copyright
              Prints license, copyright, and CVS version information onto STD-
              OUT  and  then exits. Please include this information if you are
              reporting bugs, or have specific questions about the behavior of
              smartd.

EXAMPLES
       smartd
       Runs  the  daemon in forked mode. This is the normal way to run smartd.
       Entries are logged to SYSLOG (by default /var/log/messages.)

       smartd -d -i 30
       Run in foreground (debug) mode, checking the disk status every 30  sec-
       onds.

       smartd -q onecheck
       Registers  devices,  and checks the status of the devices exactly once.
       The exit status (the bash $?  variable) will be zero if all went  well,
       and  nonzero  if  no  devices  were  detected or some other problem was
       encountered.

       Note   that   smartmontools   provides    a    start-up    script    in
       /etc/init.d/smartd  which  is responsible for starting and stopping the
       daemon via the normal init interface.  Using this script, you can start
       smartd by giving the command:
       /etc/init.d/smartd start
       and stop it by using the command:
       /etc/init.d/smartd stop

CONFIGURATION FILE /etc/smartd.conf
       In  the absence of a configuration file, under Linux smartd will try to
       open the 20 ATA devices /dev/hd[a-t] and the 26 SCSI devices /dev/sd[a-
       z].   Under  FreeBSD,  smartd will try to open all existing ATA devices
       (with entries in /dev) /dev/ad[0-9]+  and  all  existing  SCSI  devices
       /dev/da[0-9]+.   Under  NetBSD/OpenBSD,  smartd  will  try  to open all
       existing ATA devices (with entries  in  /dev)  /dev/wd[0-9]+c  and  all
       existing SCSI devices /dev/sd[0-9]+c.  Under Solaris smartd will try to
       open  all  entries  "/dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?"  for  IDE/ATA  and  SCSI  disk
       devices, and entries "/dev/rmt/*" for SCSI tape devices.  Under Windows
       smartd  will  try  to  open  all  entries  "/dev/hd[a-j]"  ("\\.\Physi-
       calDrive[0-9]")  for  IDE/ATA devices on WinNT4/2000/XP, "/dev/hd[a-d]"
       (bitmask from "\\.\SMARTVSD") for IDE/ATA devices on  Win95/98/98SE/ME,
       and  "/dev/scsi[0-9][0-7]"  (ASPI adapter 0-9, ID 0-7) for SCSI devices
       on all versions of Windows.  Under Darwin, smartd  will  open  any  ATA
       block storage device.

       This  can  be  annoying if you have an ATA or SCSI device that hangs or
       misbehaves when receiving SMART commands.  Even if this causes no prob-
       lems,  you  may  be  annoyed  by the string of error log messages about
       block-major devices that can't be found, and SCSI devices that can't be
       opened.

       One  can  avoid  this  problem, and gain more control over the types of
       events  monitored  by  smartd,  by   using   the   configuration   file
       /etc/smartd.conf.   This  file  contains  a list of devices to monitor,
       with one device per line.  An example file is included with the  smart-
       montools  distribution. You will find this sample configuration file in
       /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/. For  security,  the  configuration  file
       should not be writable by anyone but root. The syntax of the file is as
       follows:

       o   There should be one device listed per line, although you  may  have
           lines that are entirely comments or white space.

       o   Any text following a hash sign '#' and up to the end of the line is
           taken to be a comment, and ignored.

       o   Lines may be continued by using a backslash '\' as  the  last  non-
           whitespace or non-comment item on a line.

       o   Note: a line whose first character is a hash sign '#' is treated as
           a white-space blank line, not as a non-existent line, and will  end
           a continuation line.

       Here  is an example configuration file.  It's for illustrative purposes
       only; please don't copy it onto your system without reading to the  end
       of the DIRECTIVES Section below!

       ################################################
       # This is an example smartd startup config file
       # /etc/smartd.conf for monitoring three
       # ATA disks, three SCSI disks, six ATA disks
       # behind two 3ware controllers, two disks on a cciss
       # controller, three SATA disks directly connected to
       # the highpoint rocket-raid controller, two SATA
       # disks connected to the highpoint rocketraid
       # controller via a pmport device and one SATA disk.
       #
       # First ATA disk on two different interfaces. On
       # the second disk, start a long self-test every
       # Sunday between 3 and 4 am.
       #
         /dev/hda -a -m admin@example.com,root@localhost
         /dev/hdc -a -I 194 -I 5 -i 12 -s L/../../7/03
       #
       # SCSI disks. Send a TEST warning email to admin on
       # startup.
       #
         /dev/sda
         /dev/sdb -m admin@example.com -M test
       #
       # Strange device. It's SCSI. Start a scheduled
       # long self test between 5 and 6 am Monday/Thursday
         /dev/weird -d scsi -s L/../../(1|4)/05
       #
       # An ATA disk may appear as a SCSI device to the
       # OS. If a SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT) layer
       # is between the OS and the device then this can be
       # flagged with the '-d sat' option. This situation
       # may become common with SATA disks in SAS and FC
       # environments.
         /dev/sda -a -d sat
       #
       # Four ATA disks on a 3ware 6/7/8000 controller.
       # Start short self-tests daily between midnight and 1am,
       # 1-2, 2-3, and 3-4 am. Starting with the Linux 2.6
       # kernel series, /dev/sdX is deprecated in favor of
       # /dev/tweN. For example replace /dev/sdc by /dev/twe0
       # and /dev/sdd by /dev/twe1.
         /dev/sdc -d 3ware,0 -a -s S/../.././00
         /dev/sdc -d 3ware,1 -a -s S/../.././01
         /dev/sdd -d 3ware,2 -a -s S/../.././02
         /dev/sdd -d 3ware,3 -a -s S/../.././03
       #
       # Two ATA disks on a 3ware 9000 controller.
       # Start long self-tests Sundays between midnight and
       # 1am and 2-3 am
         /dev/twa0 -d 3ware,0 -a -s L/../../7/00
         /dev/twa0 -d 3ware,1 -a -s L/../../7/02
       #
       # Monitor 2 disks connected to the first HP SmartArray controller which
       # uses the cciss driver. Start long tests on Sunday nights and short
       # self-tests every night and send errors to root
         /dev/cciss/c0d0 -d cciss,0 -a -s (L/../../7/02|S/../.././02) -m root
         /dev/cciss/c0d0 -d cciss,1 -a -s (L/../../7/03|S/../.././03) -m root
       #
       # Three SATA disks on a highpoint rocketraid controller.
       # Start short self-tests daily between 1-2, 2-3, and
       # 3-4 am.
         /dev/sde -d hpt,1/1 -a -s S/../.././01
         /dev/sde -d hpt,1/2 -a -s S/../.././02
         /dev/sde -d hpt,1/3 -a -s S/../.././03
       #
       # Two SATA disks connected to a highpoint rocketraid
       # via a pmport device. Start long self-tests Sundays
       # between midnight and 1am and 2-3 am.
         /dev/sde -d hpt,1/4/1 -a -s L/../../7/00
         /dev/sde -d hpt,1/4/2 -a -s L/../../7/02
       #
       # The following line enables monitoring of the
       # ATA Error Log and the Self-Test Error Log.
       # It also tracks changes in both Prefailure
       # and Usage Attributes, apart from Attributes
       # 9, 194, and 231, and shows continued lines:
       #
         /dev/hdd -l error \
                  -l selftest \
                  -t \      # Attributes not tracked:
                  -I 194 \  # temperature
                  -I 231 \  # also temperature
                  -I 9      # power-on hours
       #
       ################################################

CONFIGURATION FILE DIRECTIVES
       If  the  first  non-comment entry in the configuration file is the text
       string DEVICESCAN in capital  letters,  then  smartd  will  ignore  any
       remaining  lines  in the configuration file, and will scan for devices.
       DEVICESCAN may optionally be followed by Directives that will apply  to
       all  devices  that  are  found in the scan.  Please see below for addi-
       tional details.

       The following are the Directives that may appear following  the  device
       name  or  DEVICESCAN  on any line of the /etc/smartd.conf configuration
       file. Note that these are NOT command-line  options  for  smartd.   The
       Directives below may appear in any order, following the device name.

       For  an  ATA  device,  if no Directives appear, then the device will be
       monitored as if the '-a' Directive (monitor all SMART  properties)  had
       been given.

       If  a  SCSI  disk is listed, it will be monitored at the maximum imple-
       mented level: roughly equivalent to using the '-H -l selftest'  options
       for  an  ATA disk.  So with the exception of '-d', '-m', '-l selftest',
       '-s', and '-M', the Directives below are ignored for SCSI  disks.   For
       SCSI  disks, the '-m' Directive sends a warning email if the SMART sta-
       tus indicates a disk failure or problem, if the SCSI inquiry about disk
       status fails, or if new errors appear in the self-test log.

       If a 3ware controller is used then the corresponding SCSI (/dev/sd?) or
       character device (/dev/twe?  or /dev/twa?) must be listed,  along  with
       the  '-d  3ware,N'  Directive  (see  below).   The individual ATA disks
       hosted by the 3ware controller appear to smartd as normal ATA  devices.
       Hence  all the ATA directives can be used for these disks (but see note
       below).

       If a cciss controller is  used  then  the  corresponding  block  device
       (/dev/cciss/c?d?) must be listed, along with the '-d cciss,N' Directive
       (see below).

       -d TYPE
              Specifies the type of the device.  This Directive  may  be  used
              multiple times for one device, but the arguments ata, scsi, sat,
              marvell, cciss,N and 3ware,N  are  mutually-exclusive.  If  more
              than  one  is  given  then  smartd  will  use the last one which
              appears.

              If none of these three arguments  is  given,  then  smartd  will
              first attempt to guess the device type by looking at whether the
              sixth character in the device name is an 's' or  an  'h'.   This
              will work for device names like /dev/hda or /dev/sdb, and corre-
              sponds to choosing ata or scsi  respectively.  If  smartd  can't
              guess  from  this  sixth  character,  then it will simply try to
              access the device using first ATA and then SCSI ioctl()s.

              The valid arguments to this Directive are:

              ata - the device type is ATA.  This prevents smartd from issuing
              SCSI commands to an ATA device.

              scsi - the device type is SCSI.  This prevents smartd from issu-
              ing ATA commands to a SCSI device.

              sat - the device type is SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT).   smartd
              will  generate ATA (smart) commands and then package them in the
              SAT defined ATA PASS THROUGH SCSI  commands.  The  commands  are
              then routed through the SCSI pass through interface to the oper-
              ating system. There are two types of ATA PASS THROUGH SCSI  com-
              mands: a 12 byte and 16 byte variant.  smartd can use either and
              defaults to the 16 byte variant. This  can  be  overridden  with
              this syntax: '-d sat,12' or '-d sat,16'.

              marvell  -  Under Linux, interact with SATA disks behind Marvell
              chip-set controllers  (using  the  Marvell  rather  than  libata
              driver).

              3ware,N - the device consists of one or more ATA disks connected
              to a 3ware RAID controller. The non-negative integer N  (in  the
              range  from  0  to  31 inclusive) denotes which disk on the con-
              troller is monitored.  In log files and email messages this disk
              will be identified as 3ware_disk_XX with XX in the range from 00
              to 31 inclusive.

              This Directive may at first appear confusing, because the  3ware
              controller  is  a  SCSI  device (such as /dev/sda) and should be
              listed as such in the the configuration file.  However when  the
              '-d  3ware,N'  Directive is used, then the corresponding disk is
              addressed using native ATA commands which are  'passed  through'
              the  SCSI driver. All ATA Directives listed in this man page may
              be used.  Note that while you may use any of the 3ware SCSI log-
              ical  devices  /dev/sd?  to  address  any  of the physical disks
              (3ware ports), error and log messages will make the  most  sense
              if  you  always list the 3ware SCSI logical device corresponding
              to the particular physical disks.  Please see the  smartctl  man
              page for further details.

              ATA disks behind 3ware controllers may alternatively be accessed
              via   a   character   device   interface   /dev/twe0-15   (3ware
              6000/7000/8000  controllers) and /dev/twa0-15 (3ware 9000 series
              controllers).  Note that the 9000 series controllers may only be
              accessed  using  the character device interface /dev/twa0-15 and
              not the SCSI device interface /dev/sd?.  Please see the smartctl
              man page for further details.

              Note  that  older  3w-xxxx  drivers  do  not  pass  the  'Enable
              Autosave' (-S on) and 'Enable Automatic Offline'  (-o  on)  com-
              mands  to  the  disk, if the SCSI interface is used, and produce
              these types of harmless syslog error messages instead: '3w-xxxx:
              tw_ioctl():  Passthru  size (123392) too big'. This can be fixed
              by upgrading to version 1.02.00.037  or  later  of  the  3w-xxxx
              driver,   or  by  applying  a  patch  to  older  versions.   See
              http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/ for instructions.   Alter-
              natively use the character device interfaces /dev/twe0-15 (3ware
              6/7/8000 series controllers) or /dev/twa0-15 (3ware 9000  series
              controllers).

              cciss,N  -  the  device  consists of one or more SCSI disks con-
              nected to a cciss RAID controller. The  non-negative  integer  N
              (in  the range from 0 to 15 inclusive) denotes which disk on the
              controller is monitored.  In log files and email  messages  this
              disk  will  be  identified as cciss_disk_XX with XX in the range
              from 00 to 15 inclusive.

              3ware and cciss controllers are currently ONLY  supported  under
              Linux.

              hpt,L/M/N  -  the  device consists of one or more ATA disks con-
              nected to a HighPoint RocketRAID controller.  The integer  L  is
              the  controller id, the integer M is the channel number, and the
              integer N is the PMPort number if it is available.  The  allowed
              values  of L are from 1 to 4 inclusive, M are from 1 to 8 inclu-
              sive and N from 1 to 4 if PMPort available.  And also these val-
              ues  are  limited  by the model of the HighPoint RocketRAID con-
              troller.  In log files and email  messages  this  disk  will  be
              identified  as hpt_X/X/X and X/X/X is the same as L/M/N, note if
              no N indicated, N set to the default value 1.

              HighPoint RocketRAID controllers are  currently  ONLY  supported
              under Linux.

              removable  -  the  device or its media is removable.  This indi-
              cates to smartd that it should  continue  (instead  of  exiting,
              which  is the default behavior) if the device does not appear to
              be present when smartd is started.  This Directive may  be  used
              in conjunction with the other '-d' Directives.

       -n POWERMODE[,q]
              This  'nocheck'  Directive  is used to prevent a disk from being
              spun-up when it is periodically polled by smartd.

              ATA disks have five different power states. In order of increas-
              ing  power  consumption  they  are:  'OFF',  'SLEEP', 'STANDBY',
              'IDLE', and 'ACTIVE'.  Typically in the OFF, SLEEP, and  STANDBY
              modes  the  disk's  platters  are  not spinning. But usually, in
              response to SMART commands issued by smartd, the  disk  platters
              are  spun  up.  So if this option is not used, then a disk which
              is  in  a  low-power  mode  may  be  spun  up  and  put  into  a
              higher-power mode when it is periodically polled by smartd.

              Note  that  if the disk is in SLEEP mode when smartd is started,
              then it won't respond to smartd commands, and so the disk  won't
              be registered as a device for smartd to monitor. If a disk is in
              any other low-power mode, then the commands issued by smartd  to
              register the disk will probably cause it to spin-up.

              The  '-n'  (nocheck)  Directive  specifies  if smartd's periodic
              checks should still be carried out  when  the  device  is  in  a
              low-power  mode.   It  may  be used to prevent a disk from being
              spun-up by periodic smartd polling.  The allowed values of  POW-
              ERMODE are:

              never  -  smartd  will poll (check) the device regardless of its
              power mode. This may cause a  disk  which  is  spun-down  to  be
              spun-up  when smartd checks it.  This is the default behavior if
              the '-n' Directive is not given.

              sleep - check the device unless it is in SLEEP mode.

              standby - check the device unless it  is  in  SLEEP  or  STANDBY
              mode.   In  these  modes  most disks are not spinning, so if you
              want to prevent a laptop disk from spinning up  each  time  that
              smartd polls, this is probably what you want.

              idle  -  check the device unless it is in SLEEP, STANDBY or IDLE
              mode.  In the IDLE state, most disks are still spinning, so this
              is probably not what you want.

              When  a  self  test is scheduled (see '-s' Directive below), the
              '-n' Directive is ignored, and all tests are carried out.

              When a periodic test  is  skipped,  smartd  normally  writes  an
              informal log message. The message can be suppressed by appending
              the option ',q' to POWERMODE (like '-n standby,q').   This  pre-
              vents a laptop disk from spinning up due to this message.

       -T TYPE
              Specifies  how  tolerant smartd should be of SMART command fail-
              ures.  The valid arguments to this Directive are:

              normal - do not try to monitor the disk  if  a  mandatory  SMART
              command  fails, but continue if an optional SMART command fails.
              This is the default.

              permissive - try to monitor the disk even if it appears to  lack
              SMART  capabilities.   This  may  be required for some old disks
              (prior to ATA-3 revision 4) that implemented  SMART  before  the
              SMART  standards were incorporated into the ATA/ATAPI Specifica-
              tions.  This may also be needed for some Maxtor disks which fail
              to  comply  with the ATA Specifications and don't properly indi-
              cate support for error- or self-test logging.

              [Please see the smartctl -T command-line option.]

       -o VALUE
              Enables or disables SMART Automatic Offline Testing when  smartd
              starts  up  and  has  no further effect.  The valid arguments to
              this Directive are on and off.

              The delay between tests is  vendor-specific,  but  is  typically
              four hours.

              Note that SMART Automatic Offline Testing is not part of the ATA
              Specification.  Please see the smartctl -o  command-line  option
              documentation for further information about this feature.

       -S VALUE
              Enables or disables Attribute Autosave when smartd starts up and
              has no further effect.  The valid arguments  to  this  Directive
              are  on  and  off.   Also affects SCSI devices.  [Please see the
              smartctl -S command-line option.]

       -H     Check the SMART health status of the disk.   If  any  Prefailure
              Attributes  are  less  than  or equal to their threshold values,
              then disk failure is predicted in less than 24 hours, and a mes-
              sage  at  loglevel  'LOG_CRITICAL'  will  be  logged  to syslog.
              [Please see the smartctl -H command-line option.]

       -l TYPE
              Reports increases in the number of errors  in  one  of  the  two
              SMART logs.  The valid arguments to this Directive are:

              error  -  report if the number of ATA errors reported in the ATA
              Error Log has increased since the last check.

              selftest - report if the number of failed tests reported in  the
              SMART  Self-Test  Log  has increased since the last check, or if
              the timestamp associated with the most recent  failed  test  has
              increased.  Note that such errors will only be logged if you run
              self-tests on the disk (and it fails a test!).   Self-Tests  can
              be  run  automatically  by smartd: please see the '-s' Directive
              below.  Self-Tests  can  also  be  run  manually  by  using  the
              '-t short'  and '-t long' options of smartctl and the results of
              the testing can be observed  using  the  smartctl  '-l selftest'
              command-line option.]

              [Please see the smartctl -l and -t command-line options.]

       -s REGEXP
              Run  Self-Tests  or Offline Immediate Tests, at scheduled times.
              A Self- or Offline Immediate Test will be  run  at  the  end  of
              periodic  device  polling,  if  all  12 characters of the string
              T/MM/DD/d/HH match the extended regular expression REGEXP. Here:

              T   is the type of the test.  The values that smartd will try to
                  match (in turn) are: 'L' for a Long  Self-Test,  'S'  for  a
                  Short  Self-Test, 'C' for a Conveyance Self-Test (ATA only),
                  and 'O' for an Offline Immediate Test (ATA only).   As  soon
                  as  a  match is found, the test will be started and no addi-
                  tional matches will be  sought  for  that  device  and  that
                  polling cycle.

              MM  is the month of the year, expressed with two decimal digits.
                  The range is from 01 (January) to 12  (December)  inclusive.
                  Do  not  use a single decimal digit or the match will always
                  fail!

              DD  is the day of the month, expressed with two decimal  digits.
                  The  range  is from 01 to 31 inclusive.  Do not use a single
                  decimal digit or the match will always fail!

              d   is the day of the week, expressed with  one  decimal  digit.
                  The range is from 1 (Monday) to 7 (Sunday) inclusive.

              HH  is the hour of the day, written with two decimal digits, and
                  given in hours after midnight.  The range is 00 (midnight to
                  just before 1am) to 23 (11pm to just before midnight) inclu-
                  sive.  Do not use a single decimal digit or the  match  will
                  always fail!

              Some  examples  follow.   In reading these, keep in mind that in
              extended regular expressions a dot '.' matches any single  char-
              acter,  and a parenthetical expression such as '(A|B|C)' denotes
              any one of the three possibilities A, B, or C.

              To schedule a short Self-Test between 2-3am every morning, use:
               -s S/../.././02
              To schedule a long Self-Test between 4-5am every Sunday morning,
              use:
               -s L/../../7/04
              To  schedule  a  long Self-Test between 10-11pm on the first and
              fifteenth day of each month, use:
               -s L/../(01|15)/./22
              To schedule an Offline Immediate test after every midnight, 6am,
              noon,and  6pm,  plus a Short Self-Test daily at 1-2am and a Long
              Self-Test every Saturday at 3-4am, use:
               -s (O/../.././(00|06|12|18)|S/../.././01|L/../../6/03)

              Scheduled tests are run  immediately  following  the  regularly-
              scheduled  device  polling, if the current local date, time, and
              test type, match REGEXP.   By  default  the  regularly-scheduled
              device  polling  occurs  every  thirty  minutes  after  starting
              smartd.  Take caution if you use the '-i' option  to  make  this
              polling  interval  more  than  sixty minutes: the poll times may
              fail to coincide with any of the testing  times  that  you  have
              specified  with REGEXP, and so the self tests may not take place
              as you wish.

              Before running an offline or self-test, smartd checks to be sure
              that  a  self-test  is  not  already running.  If a self-test is
              already running, then this running self test will not be  inter-
              rupted to begin another test.

              smartd  will not attempt to run any type of test if another test
              was already started or run in the same hour.

              To avoid performance problems during system  boot,  smartd  will
              not  attempt to run any scheduled tests following the very first
              device polling (unless '-q onecheck' is specified).

              Each time a test is run, smartd will log  an  entry  to  SYSLOG.
              You  can  use these or the '-q showtests' command-line option to
              verify that you  constructed  REGEXP  correctly.   The  matching
              order  (L  before  S before C before O) ensures that if multiple
              test types are all scheduled for the same hour, the longer  test
              type has precedence.  This is usually the desired behavior.

              Unix  users:  please  beware that the rules for extended regular
              expressions [regex(7)]  are  not  the  same  as  the  rules  for
              file-name  pattern matching by the shell [glob(7)].  smartd will
              issue harmless informational  warning  messages  if  it  detects
              characters  in REGEXP that appear to indicate that you have made
              this mistake.

       -m ADD Send a warning email to the email address ADD if the '-H', '-l',
              '-f',  '-C', or '-O' Directives detect a failure or a new error,
              or if a SMART command to the disk  fails.  This  Directive  only
              works  in  conjunction  with these other Directives (or with the
              equivalent default '-a' Directive).

              To prevent your email in-box from getting filled up with warning
              messages, by default only a single warning will be sent for each
              of the enabled alert types, '-H', '-l', '-f', '-C', or '-O' even
              if  more than one failure or error is detected or if the failure
              or error persists.  [This behavior can be modified; see the '-M'
              Directive below.]

              To  send  email  to more than one user, please use the following
              "comma      separated"      form      for      the      address:
              user1@add1,user2@add2,...,userN@addN (with no spaces).

              To  test  that  email is being sent correctly, use the '-M test'
              Directive described below to send  one  test  email  message  on
              smartd startup.

              By  default,  email  is  sent using the system mail command.  In
              order that smartd find the mail command (normally /bin/mail)  an
              executable  named  'mail'  must  be  in the path of the shell or
              environment from which smartd was started.  If you wish to spec-
              ify  an  explicit  path  to  the  mail  executable  (for example
              /usr/local/bin/mail) or a custom script to run, please  use  the
              '-M exec' Directive below.

              Note  that  by default under Solaris, in the previous paragraph,
              'mailx' and '/bin/mailx' are  used,  since  Solaris  '/bin/mail'
              does not accept a '-s' (Subject) command-line argument.

              On  Windows, the 'Blat' mailer (http://blat.sourceforge.net/) is
              used by default.  This mailer uses a different command line syn-
              tax, see '-M exec' below.

              Note  also that there is a special argument <nomailer> which can
              be given to the '-m' Directive in conjunction with the '-M exec'
              Directive. Please see below for an explanation of its effect.

              If the mailer or the shell running it produces any STDERR/STDOUT
              output, then a snippet of that output will be copied to  SYSLOG.
              The  remainder  of  the  output  is  discarded.  If problems are
              encountered in sending mail, this should help you to  understand
              and  fix  them.  If you have mail problems, we recommend running
              smartd in debug mode with the '-d' flag,  using  the  '-M  test'
              Directive described below.

              The  following  extension is available on Windows: By specifying
              'msgbox' as a mail address, a warning "email" is displayed as  a
              message box on the screen.  Using both 'msgbox' and regular mail
              addresses is possible, if 'msgbox' is  the  first  word  in  the
              comma  separated list.  With 'sysmsgbox', a system modal (always
              on top) message box is used. If running as a service, a  service
              notification  message box (always shown on current visible desk-
              top) is used.

       -M TYPE
              These Directives modify the behavior of the smartd  email  warn-
              ings  enabled  with  the  '-m'  email Directive described above.
              These '-M' Directives only work in  conjunction  with  the  '-m'
              Directive and can not be used without it.

              Multiple  -M  Directives  may be given.  If more than one of the
              following three -M Directives are given  (example:  -M  once  -M
              daily) then the final one (in the example, -M daily) is used.

              The  valid arguments to the -M Directive are (one of the follow-
              ing three):

              once - send only one warning email for each type of disk problem
              detected.  This is the default.

              daily  -  send additional warning reminder emails, once per day,
              for each type of disk problem detected.

              diminishing - send additional warning reminder emails,  after  a
              one-day  interval,  then  a  two-day  interval,  then a four-day
              interval, and so on for each type of disk problem detected. Each
              interval is twice as long as the previous interval.

              In  addition,  one  may add zero or more of the following Direc-
              tives:

              test - send a single test email immediately upon smartd startup.
              This  allows  one  to  verify that email is delivered correctly.
              Note that if this Directive is used, smartd will also  send  the
              normal email warnings that were enabled with the '-m' Directive,
              in addition to the single test email!

              exec PATH - run the executable PATH instead of the default  mail
              command, when smartd needs to send email.  PATH must point to an
              executable binary file or script.

              By setting PATH to point to a customized script,  you  can  make
              smartd  perform  useful  tricks  when a disk problem is detected
              (beeping the console, shutting down  the  machine,  broadcasting
              warnings  to  all logged-in users, etc.)  But please be careful.
              smartd will block until the executable PATH returns, so if  your
              executable  hangs,  then  smartd  will  also  hang.  Some sample
              scripts are  included  in  /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/example-
              scripts/.

              The  return  status  of  the executable is recorded by smartd in
              SYSLOG. The executable is not expected to  write  to  STDOUT  or
              STDERR.  If it does, then this is interpreted as indicating that
              something is going wrong with your executable, and a fragment of
              this  output  is  logged to SYSLOG to help you to understand the
              problem.  Normally, if you wish to leave some record behind, the
              executable should send mail or write to a file or device.

              Before  running the executable, smartd sets a number of environ-
              ment variables.  These environment variables may be used to con-
              trol  the  executable's  behavior.   The  environment  variables
              exported by smartd are:

              SMARTD_MAILER
                  is set to the argument of -M exec, if  present  or  else  to
                  'mail' (examples: /bin/mail, mail).

              SMARTD_DEVICE
                  is set to the device path (examples: /dev/hda, /dev/sdb).

              SMARTD_DEVICETYPE
                  is  set  to  the  device  type  (possible values: ata, scsi,
                  3ware,N, cciss,N, hpt,L/M/N). Here  N=0,...,23  denotes  the
                  ATA  disk  behind a 3ware or cciss RAID controller and L/M/N
                  denotes the SATA disk behind  a  HighPoint  RocketRAID  con-
                  troller.

              SMARTD_DEVICESTRING
                  is  set to the device description.  For SMARTD_DEVICETYPE of
                  ata or scsi, this is the same as SMARTD_DEVICE.   For  3ware
                  RAID    controllers,    the    form    used   is   '/dev/sdc
                  [3ware_disk_01]'.  For HighPoint RocketRAID controller,  the
                  form  is  '/dev/sdd [hpt_1/1/1]'.  In these cases the device
                  string contains a space  and  is  NOT  quoted.   So  to  use
                  $SMARTD_DEVICESTRING  in  a  bash script you should probably
                  enclose it in double quotes.

              SMARTD_FAILTYPE
                  gives the reason for the warning or message email.  The pos-
                  sible values that it takes and their meanings are:
                  EmailTest: this is an email test message.
                  Health:  the SMART health status indicates imminent failure.
                  Usage: a usage Attribute has failed.
                  SelfTest: the number of self-test failures has increased.
                  ErrorCount: the number of errors in the ATA  error  log  has
                  increased.
                  CurrentPendingSector:  one of more disk sectors could not be
                  read and are marked to be reallocated (replaced  with  spare
                  sectors).
                  OfflineUncorrectableSector:   during  off-line  testing,  or
                  self-testing, one or more disk sectors could not be read.
                  FailedHealthCheck: the SMART health status command failed.
                  FailedReadSmartData: the command  to  read  SMART  Attribute
                  data failed.
                  FailedReadSmartErrorLog: the command to read the SMART error
                  log failed.
                  FailedReadSmartSelfTestLog: the command to  read  the  SMART
                  self-test log failed.
                  FailedOpenDevice: the open() command to the device failed.

              SMARTD_ADDRESS
                  is determined by the address argument ADD of the '-m' Direc-
                  tive.  If ADD is <nomailer>, then SMARTD_ADDRESS is not set.
                  Otherwise,  it  is  set to the comma-separated-list of email
                  addresses  given  by  the  argument  ADD,  with  the  commas
                  replaced  by  spaces  (example:admin@example.com  root).  If
                  more than one email address is given, then this string  will
                  contain  space characters and is NOT quoted, so to use it in
                  a bash script you may want to enclose it in double quotes.

              SMARTD_MESSAGE
                  is set to the one sentence  summary  warning  email  message
                  string  from  smartd.   This  message  string contains space
                  characters and is NOT quoted. So to use $SMARTD_MESSAGE in a
                  bash script you should probably enclose it in double quotes.

              SMARTD_FULLMESSAGE
                  is set to the contents of the entire email  warning  message
                  string  from smartd.  This message string contains space and
                  return  characters  and   is   NOT   quoted.   So   to   use
                  $SMARTD_FULLMESSAGE  in  a  bash  script you should probably
                  enclose it in double quotes.

              SMARTD_TFIRST
                  is a text string giving the time and date at which the first
                  problem of this type was reported. This text string contains
                  space characters and no newlines, and  is  NOT  quoted.  For
                  example:
                  Sun Feb  9 14:58:19 2003 CST

              SMARTD_TFIRSTEPOCH
                  is  an  integer,  which is the unix epoch (number of seconds
                  since Jan 1, 1970) for SMARTD_TFIRST.

              The shell which is used to run  PATH  is  system-dependent.  For
              vanilla  Linux/glibc  it's bash. For other systems, the man page
              for popen(3) should say what shell is used.

              If the '-m ADD' Directive is given with a normal  address  argu-
              ment,  then  the  executable pointed to by PATH will be run in a
              shell with STDIN receiving the body of the  email  message,  and
              with the same command-line arguments:
              -s "$SMARTD_SUBJECT" $SMARTD_ADDRESS
              that would normally be provided to 'mail'.  Examples include:
              -m user@home -M exec /bin/mail
              -m admin@work -M exec /usr/local/bin/mailto
              -m root -M exec /Example_1/bash/script/below

              Note that on Windows, the syntax of the 'Blat' mailer is used:
              - -q -subject "$SMARTD_SUBJECT" -to "$SMARTD_ADDRESS"

              If  the  '-m  ADD'  Directive  is given with the special address
              argument <nomailer> then the executable pointed to  by  PATH  is
              run  in a shell with no STDIN and no command-line arguments, for
              example:
              -m <nomailer> -M exec /Example_2/bash/script/below
              If the executable produces any STDERR/STDOUT output, then smartd
              assumes  that  something  is  going wrong, and a snippet of that
              output will be copied to SYSLOG.  The remainder of the output is
              then discarded.

              Some  EXAMPLES  of  scripts  that can be used with the '-M exec'
              Directive are given below. Some sample scripts are also included
              in /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/examplescripts/.

       -f     Check   for   'failure'  of  any  Usage  Attributes.   If  these
              Attributes are less than or equal to the threshold, it does  NOT
              indicate  imminent disk failure.  It "indicates an advisory con-
              dition where the usage or age of the  device  has  exceeded  its
              intended  design life period."  [Please see the smartctl -A com-
              mand-line option.]

       -p     Report anytime that a Prefail Attribute has  changed  its  value
              since  the  last check, 30 minutes ago. [Please see the smartctl
              -A command-line option.]

       -u     Report anytime that a Usage  Attribute  has  changed  its  value
              since  the  last check, 30 minutes ago. [Please see the smartctl
              -A command-line option.]

       -t     Equivalent to turning on the two previous flags '-p'  and  '-u'.
              Tracks  changes  in  all  device Attributes (both Prefailure and
              Usage). [Please see the smartctl -A command-line option.]

       -i ID  Ignore device Attribute number ID when checking for  failure  of
              Usage  Attributes.   ID  must  be a decimal integer in the range
              from 1 to 255.  This Directive modifies the behavior of the '-f'
              Directive and has no effect without it.

              This  is  useful,  for  example, if you have a very old disk and
              don't want to keep getting messages about the  hours-on-lifetime
              Attribute  (usually  Attribute  9)  failing.  This Directive may
              appear multiple times for a single device, if you want to ignore
              multiple Attributes.

       -I ID  Ignore   device  Attribute  ID  when  tracking  changes  in  the
              Attribute values.  ID must be a decimal  integer  in  the  range
              from  1  to  255.   This  Directive modifies the behavior of the
              '-p', '-u', and '-t' tracking Directives and has no effect with-
              out one of them.

              This  is useful, for example, if one of the device Attributes is
              the disk temperature (usually Attribute 194 or 231). It's annoy-
              ing  to  get  reports  each  time the temperature changes.  This
              Directive may appear multiple times for a single device, if  you
              want to ignore multiple Attributes.

       -r ID  When  tracking,  report the Raw value of Attribute ID along with
              its (normally reported) Normalized value.  ID must be a  decimal
              integer in the range from 1 to 255.  This Directive modifies the
              behavior of the '-p', '-u', and '-t' tracking Directives and has
              no effect without one of them.  This Directive may be given mul-
              tiple times.

              A common use of this Directive is to track the  device  Tempera-
              ture (often ID=194 or 231).

       -R ID  When  tracking,  report  whenever  the Raw value of Attribute ID
              changes.  (Normally smartd only tracks/reports  changes  of  the
              Normalized  Attribute  values.)  ID must be a decimal integer in
              the range from 1 to 255.  This Directive modifies  the  behavior
              of  the  '-p',  '-u',  and  '-t'  tracking Directives and has no
              effect without one of them.  This Directive may be given  multi-
              ple times.

              If  this  Directive  is given, it automatically implies the '-r'
              Directive for the same Attribute, so that the Raw value  of  the
              Attribute is reported.

              A  common  use of this Directive is to track the device Tempera-
              ture (often ID=194 or 231).  It is also useful for understanding
              how  different  types  of  system behavior affects the values of
              certain Attributes.

       -C ID  [ATA only] Report if the current number of  pending  sectors  is
              non-zero.   Here  ID is the id number of the Attribute whose raw
              value is the Current Pending Sector count.  The allowed range of
              ID  is  0  to  255  inclusive.   To turn off this reporting, use
              ID = 0.  If the -C ID option is not given, then it  defaults  to
              -C 197 (since Attribute 197 is generally used to monitor pending
              sectors).

              A pending sector is a disk sector (containing 512 bytes of  your
              data)  which the device would like to mark as ``bad" and reallo-
              cate.  Typically this is because your  computer  tried  to  read
              that sector, and the read failed because the data on it has been
              corrupted and has inconsistent  Error  Checking  and  Correction
              (ECC)  codes.   This is important to know, because it means that
              there is some unreadable data on the disk.  The problem of  fig-
              uring out what file this data belongs to is operating system and
              file system specific.  You can typically  force  the  sector  to
              reallocate  by  writing to it (translation: make the device sub-
              stitute a spare good sector for the bad one) but at the price of
              losing the 512 bytes of data stored there.

       -U ID  [ATA only] Report if the number of offline uncorrectable sectors
              is non-zero.  Here ID is the id number of  the  Attribute  whose
              raw  value  is  the  Offline  Uncorrectable  Sector  count.  The
              allowed range of ID is 0 to 255 inclusive.   To  turn  off  this
              reporting,  use  ID = 0.  If the -U ID option is not given, then
              it defaults to -U 198 (since Attribute 198 is generally used  to
              monitor offline uncorrectable sectors).

              An  offline  uncorrectable sector is a disk sector which was not
              readable during an off-line scan or a self-test.  This is impor-
              tant  to know, because if you have data stored in this disk sec-
              tor, and you need to read it, the read will  fail.   Please  see
              the previous '-C' option for more details.

       -W DIFF[,INFO[,CRIT]]
              Report  if  the current temperature had changed by at least DIFF
              degrees since last report. Report or Warn if the temperature  is
              greater  or  equal  than one of INFO or CRIT degrees Celsius. If
              the limit CRIT is reached, a message with  loglevel  'LOG_CRITI-
              CAL'  will  be logged to syslog and a warning email will be send
              if '-m' is specified. If only the limit INFO is reached, a  mes-
              sage with loglevel 'LOG_INFO' will be logged.

              To  disable any of the 3 reports, set the corresponding limit to
              0.  Trailing zero arguments may be omitted. By default, all tem-
              perature reports are disabled ('-W 0').

              To track temperature changes of at least 2 degrees, use:
               -W 2
              To log informal messages on temperatures of at least 40 degrees,
              use:
               -W 0,40
              For warning  messages/mails  on  temperatures  of  at  least  45
              degrees, use:
               -W 0,0,45
              To combine all of the above reports, use:
               -W 2,40,45

              For  ATA devices, smartd interprets Attribute 194 as Temperature
              Celsius by default. This can be changed to Attribute 9 or 220 by
              the drive database or by the '-v' directive, see below.

       -F TYPE
              [ATA  only]  Modifies  the  behavior of smartd to compensate for
              some known and understood device firmware bug.  The arguments to
              this  Directive  are exclusive, so that only the final Directive
              given is used.  The valid values are:

              none - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA  specifica-
              tions.   This  is the default, unless the device has presets for
              '-F' in the device database.

              samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware
              Version:  RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities in
              the SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the  ATA
              specification).   Enabling  this option tells smartd to evaluate
              these quantities in byte-reversed order.  Some signs  that  your
              disk  needs  this  option are (1) no self-test log printed, even
              though you have run self-tests; (2) very large  numbers  of  ATA
              errors reported in the ATA error log; (3) strange and impossible
              values for the ATA error log timestamps.

              samsung2 - In more recent Samsung disks (firmware revisions end-
              ing in "-23") the number of ATA errors reported is byte swapped.
              Enabling this option tells smartd to evaluate this  quantity  in
              byte-reversed order.

              samsung3  -  Some  Samsung disks (at least SP2514N with Firmware
              VF100-37) report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining
              when the test was already completed. If this directive is speci-
              fied, smartd will not skip the  next  scheduled  self-test  (see
              Directive '-s' above) in this case.

              Note  that  an explicit '-F' Directive will over-ride any preset
              values for '-F' (see the '-P' option below).

              [Please see the smartctl -F command-line option.]

       -v N,OPTION
              Modifies the labeling for Attribute N, for disks which use  non-
              standard  Attribute  definitions.   This is useful in connection
              with the Attribute tracking/reporting Directives.

              This Directive may appear multiple  times.  Valid  arguments  to
              this Directive are:

              9,minutes  - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in minutes.
              Its raw value will be displayed in the form 'Xh+Ym'.  Here X  is
              hours,  and  Y  is  minutes  in  the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y is
              always printed with two digits, for  example  '06'  or  '31'  or
              '00'.

              9,seconds  - Raw Attribute number 9 is power-on time in seconds.
              Its raw value will be displayed in the form 'Xh+Ym+Zs'.  Here  X
              is  hours,  Y  is  minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive, and Z is
              seconds in the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y and Z are always printed
              with two digits, for example '06' or '31' or '00'.

              9,halfminutes  -  Raw  Attribute number 9 is power-on time, mea-
              sured in units of 30 seconds.  This format is used by some  Sam-
              sung  disks.   Its  raw  value  will  be  displayed  in the form
              'Xh+Ym'.  Here X is hours, and Y is minutes in  the  range  0-59
              inclusive.   Y  is  always  printed with two digits, for example
              '06' or '31' or '00'.

              9,temp - Raw Attribute number 9 is the disk temperature in  Cel-
              sius.

              192,emergencyretractcyclect  -  Raw  Attribute number 192 is the
              Emergency Retract Cycle Count.

              193,loadunload - Raw Attribute number 193 contains  two  values.
              The  first is the number of load cycles.  The second is the num-
              ber of unload cycles.  The difference between these  two  values
              is  the  number of times that the drive was unexpectedly powered
              off (also called an emergency unload). As a rule of  thumb,  the
              mechanical  stress created by one emergency unload is equivalent
              to that created by one hundred normal unloads.

              194,10xCelsius - Raw Attribute number 194 is ten times the  disk
              temperature  in  Celsius.   This  is  used by some Samsung disks
              (example: model SV1204H with RK100-13 firmware).

              194,unknown - Raw Attribute number 194 is NOT the disk  tempera-
              ture,  and its interpretation is unknown. This is primarily use-
              ful for the -P (presets) Directive.

              198,offlinescanuncsectorct - Raw Attribute  number  198  is  the
              Offline Scan UNC Sector Count.

              200,writeerrorcount  -  Raw  Attribute  number  200 is the Write
              Error Count.

              201,detectedtacount - Raw Attribute number 201 is  the  Detected
              TA Count.

              220,temp  -  Raw Attribute number 220 is the disk temperature in
              Celsius.

              Note: a table of hard drive models, listing which Attribute cor-
              responds     to     temperature,     can     be     found    at:
              http://www.guzu.net/linux/hddtemp.db

              N,raw8 - Print the  Raw  value  of  Attribute  N  as  six  8-bit
              unsigned  base-10 integers.  This may be useful for decoding the
              meaning of the Raw value.  The form 'N,raw8' prints  Raw  values
              for  ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for example)
              '123,raw8' only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123  in  this
              form.

              N,raw16  -  Print  the  Raw value of Attribute N as three 16-bit
              unsigned base-10 integers.  This may be useful for decoding  the
              meaning  of the Raw value.  The form 'N,raw16' prints Raw values
              for ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for  example)
              '123,raw16'  only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in this
              form.

              N,raw48 - Print the  Raw  value  of  Attribute  N  as  a  48-bit
              unsigned  base-10  integer.  This may be useful for decoding the
              meaning of the Raw value.  The form 'N,raw48' prints Raw  values
              for  ALL  Attributes  in  this  form.   The  form  (for example)
              '123,raw48' only prints the Raw value for Attribute 123 in  this
              form.

       -P TYPE
              Specifies  whether smartd should use any preset options that are
              available for this drive.  The valid arguments to this Directive
              are:

              use  -  use any presets that are available for this drive.  This
              is the default.

              ignore - do not use any presets for this drive.

              show - show the presets listed for this drive in the database.

              showall - show the presets that are available for all drives and
              then exit.

              [Please see the smartctl -P command-line option.]

       -a     Equivalent  to  turning on all of the following Directives: '-H'
              to check the SMART health status, '-f'  to  report  failures  of
              Usage (rather than Prefail) Attributes, '-t' to track changes in
              both Prefailure and Usage Attributes,  '-l selftest'  to  report
              increases  in  the number of Self-Test Log errors, '-l error' to
              report increases in the number of ATA errors, '-C 197' to report
              nonzero values of the current pending sector count, and '-U 198'
              to report nonzero values of the offline pending sector count.

              Note that -a is the default for ATA devices.  If none  of  these
              other Directives is given, then -a is assumed.

       #      Comment: ignore the remainder of the line.

       \      Continuation  character:  if  this is the last non-white or non-
              comment character on a line, then the following line is  a  con-
              tinuation of the current one.

       If  you  are  not sure which Directives to use, I suggest experimenting
       for a few minutes with smartctl to see what  SMART  functionality  your
       disk(s)  support(s).   If you do not like voluminous syslog messages, a
       good choice of smartd configuration file Directives might be:
       -H -l selftest -l error -f.
       If you want more frequent information, use: -a.

       ADDITIONAL DETAILS ABOUT DEVICESCAN
              If the first non-comment entry in the configuration file is  the
              text  string  DEVICESCAN  in  capital  letters, then smartd will
              ignore any remaining lines in the configuration file,  and  will
              scan for devices.

              If  DEVICESCAN  is  not  followed by any Directives, then smartd
              will scan for both ATA and SCSI devices, and  will  monitor  all
              possible SMART properties of any devices that are found.

              DEVICESCAN  may  optionally be followed by any valid Directives,
              which will be applied to all devices that are found in the scan.
              For example
              DEVICESCAN -m root@example.com
              will  scan for all devices, and then monitor them.  It will send
              one email warning per device for any problems that are found.
              DEVICESCAN -d ata -m root@example.com
              will do the same, but restricts the scan to ATA devices only.
              DEVICESCAN -H -d ata -m root@example.com
              will do the same, but only monitors the SMART health  status  of
              the  devices,  (rather  than  the default -a, which monitors all
              SMART properties).

       EXAMPLES OF SHELL SCRIPTS FOR '-M exec'
              These are two examples of shell scripts that can  be  used  with
              the '-M exec PATH' Directive described previously.  The paths to
              these scripts and similar executables is the  PATH  argument  to
              the '-M exec PATH' Directive.

              Example  1:  This  script  is  for  use with '-m ADDRESS -M exec
              PATH'.  It appends the output of smartctl -a to  the  output  of
              the smartd email warning message and sends it to ADDRESS.

              #! /bin/bash

              # Save the email message (STDIN) to a file:
              cat > /root/msg

              # Append the output of smartctl -a to the message:
              /usr/sbin/smartctl -a -d $SMART_DEVICETYPE $SMARTD_DEVICE >> /root/msg

              # Now email the message to the user at address ADD:
              /bin/mail -s "$SMARTD_SUBJECT" $SMARTD_ADDRESS < /root/msg

              Example  2:  This  script is for use with '-m <nomailer> -M exec
              PATH'. It warns all users about a disk problem,  waits  30  sec-
              onds, and then powers down the machine.

              #! /bin/bash

              # Warn all users of a problem
              wall 'Problem detected with disk: ' "$SMARTD_DEVICESTRING"
              wall 'Warning message from smartd is: ' "$SMARTD_MESSAGE"
              wall 'Shutting down machine in 30 seconds... '

              # Wait half a minute
              sleep 30

              # Power down the machine
              /sbin/shutdown -hf now

              Some  example  scripts  are  distributed  with the smartmontools
              package, in /usr/share/doc/smartmontools/examplescripts/.

              Please note that these scripts typically run  as  root,  so  any
              files  that  they  read/write should not be writable by ordinary
              users or reside in directories like /tmp that  are  writable  by
              ordinary users and may expose your system to symlink attacks.

              As  previously  described,  if  the  scripts  write to STDOUT or
              STDERR, this is interpreted as  indicating  that  there  was  an
              internal error within the script, and a snippet of STDOUT/STDERR
              is logged to SYSLOG.  The remainder is flushed.

NOTES
       smartd will make log entries at loglevel  LOG_INFO  if  the  Normalized
       SMART  Attribute values have changed, as reported using the '-t', '-p',
       or '-u' Directives. For example:
       'Device: /dev/hda, SMART Attribute: 194 Temperature_Celsius changed from 94 to 93'
       Note that in this message, the value given is the 'Normalized' not  the
       'Raw'  Attribute  value  (the disk temperature in this case is about 22
       Celsius).  The '-R' and '-r' Directives modify this behavior,  so  that
       the information is printed with the Raw values as well, for example:
       'Device: /dev/hda, SMART Attribute: 194 Temperature_Celsius changed from 94 [Raw 22] to 93 [Raw 23]'
       Here  the  Raw values are the actual disk temperatures in Celsius.  The
       way in which the Raw values are printed, and the names under which  the
       Attributes  are  reported,  is governed by the various '-v Num,Descrip-
       tion' Directives described previously.

       Please see the smartctl manual page for further explanation of the dif-
       ferences between Normalized and Raw Attribute values.

       smartd  will make log entries at loglevel LOG_CRIT if a SMART Attribute
       has failed, for example:
       'Device: /dev/hdc, Failed SMART Attribute: 5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct'
        This loglevel  is  used  for  reporting  enabled  by  the  '-H',  -f',
       '-l selftest',  and '-l error' Directives. Entries reporting failure of
       SMART Prefailure Attributes should not be ignored: they mean  that  the
       disk is failing.  Use the smartctl utility to investigate.

       Under Solaris with the default /etc/syslog.conf configuration, messages
       below loglevel LOG_NOTICE will not be recorded.  Hence all smartd  mes-
       sages  with  loglevel  LOG_INFO  will  be lost.  If you want to use the
       existing daemon facility to log all messages from  smartd,  you  should
       change /etc/syslog.conf from:
              ...;daemon.notice;...        /var/adm/messages
       to read:
              ...;daemon.info;...          /var/adm/messages
       Alternatively, you can use a local facility to log messages: please see
       the smartd '-l' command-line option described above.

       On Cygwin and Windows, the log messages are written to the event log or
       to  a  file.  See  documentation  of the '-l FACILITY' option above for
       details.

       On Windows, the following built-in commands  can  be  used  to  control
       smartd, if running as a daemon:

       'smartd status' - check status

       'smartd stop' - stop smartd

       'smartd reload' - reread config file

       'smartd restart' - restart smartd

       'smartd sigusr1' - check disks now

       'smartd sigusr2' - toggle debug mode

       On WinNT4/2000/XP, smartd can also be run as a Windows service:

       The  Cygwin Version of smartd can be run as a service via the cygrunsrv
       tool. The start-up script provides Cygwin-specific commands to  install
       and remove the service:
       /etc/init.d/smartd install [options]
       /etc/init.d/smartd remove
       The  service can be started and stopped by the start-up script as usual
       (see EXAMPLES above).

       The Windows Version of smartd has buildin support for services:

       'smartd install [options]' installs a service named  "smartd"  (display
       name  "SmartD Service") using the command line '/installpath/smartd.exe
       --service [options]'.

       'smartd remove' can later be used to remove the service entry from reg-
       istry.

       Upon  startup,  the smartd service changes the working directory to its
       own installation path. If smartd.conf and blat.exe are stored  in  this
       directory, no '-c' option and '-M exec' directive is needed.

       The debug mode ('-d', '-q onecheck') does not work if smartd is running
       as service.

       The service can be controlled as usual with Windows commands  'net'  or
       'sc' ('net start smartd', 'net stop smartd').

       Pausing the service ('net pause smartd') sets the interval between disk
       checks ('-i N') to infinite.

       Continuing the paused service ('net continue smartd') resets the inter-
       val and rereads the configuration file immediately (like SIGHUP):

       Continuing  a still running service ('net continue smartd' without pre-
       ceding 'net pause smartd') does not  reread  configuration  but  checks
       disks immediately (like SIGUSR1).

LOG TIMESTAMP TIMEZONE
       When smartd makes log entries, these are time-stamped.  The time stamps
       are in the computer's local time zone, which  is  generally  set  using
       either  the environment variable 'TZ' or using a time-zone file such as
       /etc/localtime.  You may wish to change the timezone  while  smartd  is
       running  (for  example,  if  you  carry a laptop to a new time-zone and
       don't reboot it).  Due to a bug in the tzset(3) function of  many  unix
       standard  C libraries, the time-zone stamps of smartd might not change.
       For some systems, smartd will work around this problem if the time-zone
       is  set using /etc/localtime. The work-around fails if the time-zone is
       set using the 'TZ' variable (or a file that it points to).

RETURN VALUES
       The return value (exit status) of smartd can have the following values:

       0:     Daemon startup successful, or smartd was killed by a SIGTERM (or
              in debug mode, a SIGQUIT).

       1:     Commandline did not parse.

       2:     There was a syntax error in the config file.

       3:     Forking the daemon failed.

       4:     Couldn't create PID file.

       5:     Config file does not exist (only returned  in  conjunction  with
              the '-c' option).

       6:     Config file exists, but cannot be read.

       8:     smartd ran out of memory during startup.

       9:     A  compile  time  constant of smartd was too small.  This can be
              caused  by  an  excessive  number  of  disks,  or  by  lines  in
              /etc/smartd.conf  that are too long.  Please report this problem
              to  smartmontools-support@lists.sourceforge.net.

       10     An inconsistency was found in smartd's internal data structures.
              This  should never happen.  It must be due to either a coding or
              compiler bug.  Please report such failures to smartmontools-sup-
              port@lists.sourceforge.net.

       16:    A  device  explicitly  listed in /etc/smartd.conf can't be moni-
              tored.

       17:    smartd didn't find any devices to monitor.

       254:   When in daemon mode, smartd received a SIGINT or SIGQUIT.  (Note
              that  in  debug  mode, SIGINT has the same effect as SIGHUP, and
              makes smartd reload its configuration file. SIGQUIT has the same
              effect  as SIGTERM and causes smartd to exit with zero exit sta-
              tus.

       132 and above
              smartd was killed by a signal  that  is  not  explicitly  listed
              above.  The exit status is then 128 plus the signal number.  For
              example if smartd is killed by SIGKILL (signal 9) then the  exit
              status is 137.

AUTHOR
       Bruce Allen smartmontools-support@lists.sourceforge.net
       University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department

CONTRIBUTORS
       The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
       Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI interface)
       Christian Franke (Windows interface and Cygwin package)
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
       Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
       Geoffrey Keating (Darwin ATA interface)
       Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
       Frederic L. W. Meunier (Web site and Mailing list)
       Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
       Sergey Svishchev (NetBSD interface)
       David Snyder and Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
       Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
       Shengfeng Zhou (Linux Highpoint RocketRaid interface)
       Many other individuals have made smaller contributions and corrections.

CREDITS
       This code was derived from the smartsuite package, written  by  Michael
       Cornwell,  and  from  the  previous ucsc smartsuite package. It extends
       these to cover ATA-5 disks. This code was  originally  developed  as  a
       Senior  Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems Laboratory
       (now part of the Storage Systems Research Center), Jack  Baskin  School
       of    Engineering,    University    of    California,    Santa    Cruz.
       http://ssrc.soe.ucsc.edu/ .

HOME PAGE FOR SMARTMONTOOLS:
       Please see the following web site for updates,  further  documentation,
       bug reports and patches: http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

SEE ALSO:
       smartd.conf(5),  smartctl(8), syslogd(8), syslog.conf(5), badblocks(8),
       ide-smart(8), regex(7).

REFERENCES FOR SMART
       An introductory article about smartmontools is  Monitoring  Hard  Disks
       with  SMART,  by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004, pages 74-77.
       This is http://www.linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6983 online.

       If you would like to understand better how SMART  works,  and  what  it
       does,  a good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the first
       volume of the 'AT Attachment  with  Packet  Interface-7'  (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification.  This documents the SMART functionality which the smart-
       montools utilities provide access to.  You can find Revision 4b of this
       document  at  http://www.t13.org/docs2004/d1532v1r4b-ATA-ATAPI-7.pdf  .
       Earlier and later versions of this Specification are available from the
       T13 web site http://www.t13.org/ .

       The  functioning of SMART was originally defined by the SFF-8035i revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications.  These are publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.  Links to these doc-
       uments may be found in the References section of the smartmontools home
       page at http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/#references .

CVS ID OF THIS PAGE:
       $Id: smartd.8.in,v 1.121 2008/03/04 22:09:47 ballen4705 Exp $

smartmontools-5.38                2008/03/10                         SMARTD(8)

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