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SYSLOG.CONF(5)            Linux System Administration           SYSLOG.CONF(5)

       syslog.conf - syslogd(8) configuration file

       The  syslog.conf file is the main configuration file for the syslogd(8)
       which logs system messages on *nix systems.  This file specifies  rules
       for logging.  For special features see the sysklogd(8) manpage.

       Every  rule  consists  of  two  fields,  a selector field and an action
       field.  These two fields are separated by one or more spaces  or  tabs.
       The  selector  field  specifies  a pattern of facilities and priorities
       belonging to the specified action.

       Lines starting with a hash mark (``#'') and empty lines are ignored.

       This release of syslogd is able to understand an extended syntax.   One
       rule  can  be  divided into several lines if the leading line is termi-
       nated with an backslash (``\'').

       The selector field itself again consists of two parts, a facility and a
       priority,  separated by a period (``.'').  Both parts are case insensi-
       tive and can also be specified as decimal numbers, but don't  do  that,
       you  have been warned.  Both facilities and priorities are described in
       syslog(3).   The  names  mentioned  below  correspond  to  the  similar
       LOG_-values in /usr/include/syslog.h.

       The  facility  is  one of the following keywords: auth, authpriv, cron,
       daemon, ftp, kern, lpr, mail, mark, news, security (same as auth), sys-
       log, user, uucp and local0 through local7.  The keyword security should
       not be used anymore and mark is only for  internal  use  and  therefore
       should  not  be  used in applications.  Anyway, you may want to specify
       and redirect these messages here.  The facility specifies the subsystem
       that  produced  the  message,  i.e. all mail programs log with the mail
       facility (LOG_MAIL) if they log using syslog.

       In most cases anyone can log to any facility, so we rely on  convention
       for  the  correct  facility  to be chosen.  However, generally only the
       kernel can log to the "kern" facility.  This is because the implementa-
       tion  of  openlog() and syslog() in glibc does not allow logging to the
       "kern" facility.  Klogd circumvents this restriction  when  logging  to
       syslogd by reimplementing those functions itself.

       The  priority  is  one  of  the following keywords, in ascending order:
       debug, info, notice, warning, warn (same as warning), err, error  (same
       as err), crit, alert, emerg, panic (same as emerg).  The keywords warn,
       error and panic are deprecated and should not  be  used  anymore.   The
       priority defines the severity of the message

       The  behavior  of  the original BSD syslogd is that all messages of the
       specified priority and higher are logged according to the given action.
       This syslogd(8) behaves the same, but has some extensions.

       In addition to the above mentioned names the syslogd(8) understands the
       following extensions: An asterisk (``*'') stands for all facilities  or
       all  priorities,  depending  on  where  it is used (before or after the
       period).  The keyword none stands for no priority of the  given  facil-

       You  can  specify multiple facilities with the same priority pattern in
       one statement using the comma (``,'') operator.   You  may  specify  as
       many  facilities  as you want.  Please note that only the facility part
       from such a statement is taken, a priority part would be skipped.

       Multiple selectors may be specified for a single action using the semi-
       colon  (``;'') separator.  Please note that each selector in the selec-
       tor field is capable of overwriting the  preceding  ones.   Using  this
       behavior you can exclude some priorities from the pattern.

       This  syslogd(8)  has  a  syntax  extension to the original BSD source,
       which makes its use more intuitive.  You  may  precede  every  priority
       with an equation sign (``='') to specify that syslogd should only refer
       to this single priority and not this priority and  all  higher  priori-

       You  may  also precide the priority with an exclamation mark (``!'') if
       you want syslogd to ignore this priority  and  all  higher  priorities.
       You  may  even  use both, the exclamation mark and the equation sign if
       you want syslogd to ignore only this single priority.  If you use  both
       extensions  than  the  exclamation  mark must occur before the equation
       sign, just use it intuitively.

       The action field of a rule describes the abstract term ``logfile''.   A
       ``logfile''  need  not to be a real file, btw.  The syslogd(8) provides
       the following actions.

   Regular File
       Typically messages are logged to real files.  The file has to be speci-
       fied with full pathname, beginning with a slash ``/''.

       You may prefix each entry with the minus ``-'' sign to omit syncing the
       file after every logging.  Note that you might lose information if  the
       system  crashes  right behind a write attempt.  Nevertheless this might
       give you back some performance, especially if you run programs that use
       logging in a very verbose manner.

   Named Pipes
       This  version  of  syslogd(8)  has support for logging output  to named
       pipes (fifos).  A fifo or named pipe can be used as a  destination  for
       log  messages  by  prepending  a pipe symbol (``|'') to the name of the
       file.  This is handy for debugging.  Note that the fifo must be created
       with the mkfifo(1) command  before syslogd(8) is started.

   Terminal and Console
       If  the file you specified is a tty, special tty-handling is done, same
       with /dev/console.

   Remote Machine
       This syslogd(8) provides full remote logging, i.e. is able to send mes-
       sages  to a remote host running syslogd(8) and to receive messages from
       remote hosts.  The remote host won't forward the message again, it will
       just  log  them  locally.  To forward messages to another host, prepend
       the hostname with the at sign (``@'').

       Using this feature you're able to control all syslog  messages  on  one
       host, if all other machines will log remotely to that.  This tears down
       administration needs.

   List of Users
       Usually critical  messages  are  also  directed  to  ``root''  on  that
       machine.  You can specify a list of users that shall get the message by
       simply writing the username.  You may specify more  than  one  user  by
       separating  the  usernames  with  commas (``,'').  If they're logged in
       they will receive the log messages.

   Everyone logged on
       Emergency messages often go to all users  currently  online  to  notify
       them  that  something strange is happening with the system.  To specify
       this wall(1)-feature use an asterisk (``*'').

       Here are some example, partially taken from a real  existing  site  and
       configuration.   Hopefully they rub out all questions on the configura-
       tion, if not, drop me (Joey) a line.

              # Store critical stuff in critical
              *.=crit;kern.none            /var/adm/critical

       This will store all  messages  with  the  priority  crit  in  the  file
       /var/adm/critical, except for any kernel message.

              # Kernel messages are first, stored in the kernel
              # file, critical messages and higher ones also go
              # to another host and to the console
              kern.*                       /var/adm/kernel
              kern.crit                    @finlandia
              kern.crit                    /dev/console
    ;kern.!err          /var/adm/kernel-info

       The  first rule directs any message that has the kernel facility to the
       file /var/adm/kernel.  (But recall that only the kernel itself can  log
       to this facility.)

       The  second  statement directs all kernel messages of the priority crit
       and higher to the remote host finlandia.  This is  useful,  because  if
       the  host crashes and the disks get irreparable errors you might not be
       able to read the stored messages.  If they're on a  remote  host,  too,
       you still can try to find out the reason for the crash.

       The  third  rule  directs  these messages to the actual console, so the
       person who works on the machine will get them, too.

       The fourth line tells the syslogd to save all kernel messages that come
       with  priorities  from  info up to warning in the file /var/adm/kernel-
       info.  Everything from err and higher is excluded.

              # The tcp wrapper logs with, we display
              # all the connections on tty12
              mail.=info                   /dev/tty12

       This directs all messages that uses  (in  source  LOG_MAIL  |
       LOG_INFO)  to /dev/tty12, the 12th console.  For example the tcpwrapper
       tcpd(8) uses this as its default.

              # Store all mail concerning stuff in a file
              mail.*;mail.!=info           /var/adm/mail

       This pattern matches all messages that come  with  the  mail  facility,
       except  for  the  info  priority.   These  will  be  stored in the file

              # Log all and messages to info
              mail,news.=info              /var/adm/info

       This will extract all messages that come either with or  with and store them in the file /var/adm/info.

              # Log info and notice messages to messages file
                   mail.none  /var/log/messages

       This  lets  the syslogd log all messages that come with either the info
       or the notice priority into the file /var/log/messages, except for  all
       messages that use the mail facility.

              # Log info messages to messages file
                   mail,news.none       /var/log/messages

       This  statement  causes  the syslogd to log all messages that come with
       the info priority to the file /var/log/messages.  But any message  com-
       ing either with the mail or the news facility will not be stored.

              # Emergency messages will be displayed using wall
              *.=emerg                     *

       This rule tells the syslogd to write all emergency messages to all cur-
       rently logged in users.  This is the wall action.

              # Messages of the priority alert will be directed
              # to the operator
              *.alert                      root,joey

       This rule directs all messages with a priority of alert  or  higher  to
       the  terminals of the operator, i.e. of the users ``root'' and ``joey''
       if they're logged in.

              *.*                          @finlandia

       This rule would redirect all messages to a remote host  called  finlan-
       dia.  This is useful especially in a cluster of machines where all sys-
       log messages will be stored on only one machine.

       Syslogd uses a slightly different syntax  for  its  configuration  file
       than  the  original BSD sources.  Originally all messages of a specific
       priority and above were forwarded  to  the  log  file.   The  modifiers
       ``='',  ``!''   and  ``-'' were added to make the syslogd more flexible
       and to use it in a more intuitive manner.

       The original  BSD  syslogd  doesn't  understand  spaces  as  separators
       between the selector and the action field.

              Configuration file for syslogd
       The  effects  of  multiple  selectors are sometimes not intuitive.  For
       example ``mail.crit,*.err'' will select ``mail'' facility  messages  at
       the level of ``err'' or higher, not at the level of ``crit'' or higher.
       sysklogd(8), klogd(8), logger(1), syslog(2), syslog(3).
       The syslogd is taken from BSD sources, Greg Wettstein <greg@wind.enjel->  performed  the  port  to  Linux,  Martin  Schulze <joey@info-> fixed some bugs, added several new  features  and  took  over

Version 1.3                    30 November 2006                 SYSLOG.CONF(5)

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